Neural Network Assisted Analysis for Longwall Gate Road Stability Using Measured Roof Convergence Data

  • Srikanth Katkuri
  • Debasis DebEmail author
  • B. V. Reddy
  • Hemant Kumar
Original Paper


Immediate roof of a longwall panel is composed of layered coal, shaly coal, shale and clay strata overlaying by a thick sandstone main roof. The average depth of the coal seam is about 420 m and it has dip of 10°. The gate roads of width 5.2 m and height 3.5 m are developed in either sides of the panel and the roof is supported by 2.4 m resin grouted rock bolts. A special resin grouted 60 tonne capacity, 6.1 m long bulb type cable bolt is also installed for effectively supporting 8 m width shield installation roadway and gate roads during retreat of the longwall panel. The paper emphasizes on the monitoring and analysis of roof convergence in gate roads by convergence recorder as well as double telescopic telltale devices. Based on the analysis results, design is modified to improve the stability of gate roads. Cumulative roof convergence (CRC) data during development of gate roads are found to vary as tangent hyperbolic function with passage of time and are analyzed using artificial neural network to estimate the key parameters of the function. Convergence increase rate along with the maximum CRC is then used to prepare a Trigger Action Response Plan for immediate notification of the ground control problems. Data analysis also suggests that during retreat of longwall panel, CRC increases exponentially if the longwall face approaches within 10 to 25 m from a measuring station installed along main and tail gate roads. In this paper, methodologies are described for the analysis of CRC data for better understanding of roof behavior and for taking timely decision for any unusual event.


Longwall mining Stratified roofs Cumulative convergence increase rate ANN 



The authors wish to express their sincere appreciation and grateful thanks to the management of SCCL for their support and cooperation, for permitting to present this paper and also permitting to use certain data for presenting in this paper.


  1. Afrouz A, Hassani FP, Scoble M (1988) The performance of longwall gate roads with soft floors. Canad Geotech J 25:279–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barron L, DeMarco MJ (1995) Longwall gate road stability in a steeply pitching thick coal seam with a weak roofGoogle Scholar
  3. Barron LR, DeMarco MJ, Kneisley RO (1994) Longwall gate road stability in four deep western US coal mines. Information circular. United States. Accessed 26 Mar 2019
  4. Colwell M, Frith R (2009) ALTS 2009—a ten year journey. In: N Aziz (ed) Coal 2009: coal operators’ conference, 12–13 February, pp 37–53Google Scholar
  5. Deb D, Verma AK (2004) Ground control problems in Indian longwall mines: a perspective and future research outlook. J Mines Metals Fuels 52(9 & 10):178–185Google Scholar
  6. Frith R, Reed G, Mckinnon M (2017) Fundamental principles of an effective reinforcing roof bolting strategy in horizontally layered roof strata and areas of potential improvement. Int J Min Sci Technol 28:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghose AK (2003) Why longwall in India has not succeeded as in other developing country like China. IE(I) J MN 84:2001–2004Google Scholar
  8. Kumar B, Chandrasekhar S, Reddy BV (2016) Construction and operation of high capacity longwall project—Adriyala experience. In: An international conference on recent advances in rock engineering, Bangalore, pp 16–18Google Scholar
  9. Mahdevari S, Shahriar K, Sharifzadeh M, Tannant D (2017) Stability prediction of gate roadways in longwall mining using artificial neural networks. Neural Comput Appl 28:3537–3555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mahdi S, Li C (2012) Numerical modeling of longwall mining and stability analysis of gates in a coal mine. J Rock Mech Min Sci 51:24–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Maleki H, Agapito J, Wangsgard M, Cort J (1986) Gate road layout design for two-seam longwall mining. Int J Min Geol Eng 4:111–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Park D, Deb D (1999) Longwall strata control and maintenance system—a stethoscope for longwall mining. Min Eng 51:49–53Google Scholar
  13. Park D, Lee S, Jiang Y, Deb D (1993) Numerical simulation of main roof behavior in Longwall mining, In: First Canadian symposium on numerical modeling applications in mining and geomechanics, Montreal, Canada, pp 129–139Google Scholar
  14. Peng S (1987) Support capacity and roof behaviour at longwall faces with shield supports. J Min Geol Eng 5:29–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rezaei M, Hossaini MF, Majdi A, Najmoddini I (2017) Determination of the height of destressed zone above the mined panel: an ANN model. Int J Min Geo-Eng 51(1):1–7Google Scholar
  16. Trueman R, Lyman GJ, Cocker A (2009) Longwall roof control through a fundamental understanding of shield-strata interaction. J Rock Mech Min Sci 51:24–34Google Scholar
  17. Tulu I, Su D (2018) Analysis of global and local stress changes in a longwall gateroad. J Min Sci Technol 28:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Verma AK, Deb D (2007) Statistical and neural regression approach for prediction of longwall chock-shield support pressure. In: 11th ISRM Congress, 9–13 July, Lisbon, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  19. Verma AK, Kaushal K, Chatterjee S (2016) Prediction model of longwall powered support capacity using field monitored data of a longwall panel and uncertainty—based neural network. Geotech Geol Eng 34:2033–2052CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Srikanth Katkuri
    • 1
  • Debasis Deb
    • 2
    Email author
  • B. V. Reddy
    • 3
  • Hemant Kumar
    • 4
  1. 1.Adriyala Longwall Project, APASCCLBhadradri Kothagudem DistrictIndia
  2. 2.Mining Engineering DepartmentIIT KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  3. 3.Adriyala Projects AreaSCCLBhadradri Kothagudem DistrictIndia
  4. 4.Department of Mining EngineeringIIT(ISM)-DhanbadDhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations