Advertisement

Evaluation of Theoretical Models to Predict the Pullout Capacity of a Vertical Anchor Embedded in Cohesionless Soil

  • Rowshon Jadid
  • Azmayeen R. ShahriarEmail author
  • Md Rejwanur Rahman
  • Tanvir Imtiaz
State-of-the-Art Review
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

Vertical anchor is a structural member designed to resist the pullout forces and ensure stability of the geotechnical structures. At present, an accurate, reliable, efficient, and economic design of a vertical anchor is a challenge to many engineers. This paper presents a summary of the existing theoretical models to predict the pullout capacity of a vertical anchor embedded in cohesionless soil. An extensive literature review is conducted to compile the experimental studies available in the literature to date. Since most models hitherto focused on shallow anchors (embedment depth to anchor height ratio < 5), to ascertain the applicability of the existing models to deep anchors (embedment depth to anchor height ratio > 5), a numerical simulation is performed using PLAXIS 3D, validating against the experimental observations presented in the literature. Based on two statistical parameters, Accuracy and Reliability, a comparative assessment of the available pullout capacity prediction models is presented. Thereafter, based on the 86 experimental data available in the literature, a multiplying factor is proposed to ease the selection of any model according to the desired Accuracy and Reliability in any specific practical situation. In addition, the effect of anchor placement is also discussed while using different models. Finally, depending on the objective of the engineer, the best approach among the different models is suggested.

Keywords

Anchor Pullout capacity Cohesionless soil Retaining structure Numerical analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research was supported by the Academic Research Grant [Fund 22:5998 (5) under Grant 18] of the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET).

References

  1. Akinmusuru JO (1978) Horizontally loaded vertical plate anchors in sand. J Geotech Eng Div (ASCE) 104:283–286Google Scholar
  2. Basudhar PK, Singh DN (1994) A generalized procedure for predicting optimal lower bound break-out factors of strip anchors. Géotechnique 44:307–318.  https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1994.44.2.307 Google Scholar
  3. Bhattacharya P, Kumar J (2014) Pullout capacity of inclined plate anchors embedded in sand. Can Geotech J 51:1365–1370.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2014-0114 Google Scholar
  4. Bilgin O (2012) Lateral earth pressure coefficients for anchored sheet pile walls. Int J Geomech 12:584–595.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000154 Google Scholar
  5. Bowles JE (1997) Foundation analysis and design, 5th edn. The McGraw-Hill Companies, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  6. BS 8006-1 (2010) Strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills (section 6.6). British Standard, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Choudhary AK, Dash SK (2016) Load-carrying mechanism of vertical plate anchors in sand. Int J Geomech 17:04016116.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000813 Google Scholar
  8. Das BM (1990) Earth anchors. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  9. Das BM (1995) Principles of foundation engineering, 3rd edn. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, MontereyGoogle Scholar
  10. Das BM (2007) Principles of foundation engineering, 6th edn. Thomson Brooks/Cole, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  11. Das BM, Seeley GR (1975) Load–displacement relationships for vertical anchor plates. J Geotech Eng Div (ASCE) 101(GT7):711–715Google Scholar
  12. Dickin EA, King JW (1997) Numerical modelling of the load–displacement behavior of anchor walls. Comput Struct 63:849–858.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-7949(96)00066-1 Google Scholar
  13. Dickin EA, Leung CF (1983) Centrifuge model tests on vertical anchor plates. J Geotech Eng (ASCE) 109:1503–1525.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1983)109:12(1503) Google Scholar
  14. Dickin EA, Leung CF (1985) Evaluation of design methods for vertical anchor plates. J Geotech Eng (ASCE) 111:500–520.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1985)111:4(500) Google Scholar
  15. Drucker DC, Greenberg HJ, Prager W (1952) Extended limit design theorems for continuous media. Q J Appl Math 9:381–389Google Scholar
  16. Duncan M, Mokwa R (2001) Passive earth pressures: theories and test. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng (ASCE) 127:248–257.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2001)127:3(248) Google Scholar
  17. Ghaly AM (1997) Load–displacement prediction for horizontally loaded vertical plates. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng (ASCE) 123:74–76.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1997)123:1(74) Google Scholar
  18. Hanna AM, Das BM, Foriero A (1988) Behavior of shallow inclined plate anchors in sand. Geotech Spec Publ (ASCE) 16:54–72Google Scholar
  19. Hanna A, Rahman F, Ayadat T (2011) Passive earth pressure on embedded vertical plate anchors in sand. Acta Geotech 6:21–29.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-010-0109-0 Google Scholar
  20. Hansen JB (1966) Resistance of rectangular anchor slab. Dan Geotech Inst 21:12–13Google Scholar
  21. Hoshiya M, Mandal JN (1984) Some studies of anchor plates in sand. Soils Found 24:9–16.  https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.24.9 Google Scholar
  22. Hueckel S (1957) Model tests on anchoring capacity of vertical and inclined plates. In: Proceedings of 4th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, London, vol 2, pp 203–206Google Scholar
  23. Jadid R (2016) Modelling of pullout resistance of concrete anchor block embedded in cohesionless soil. MSc thesis, Bangladesh University of Engineering and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  24. Jadid R, Abedin Z, Shahriar AR, Arif MZU (2018) Analytical model for pullout capacity of a vertical concrete anchor block embedded at shallow depth in cohesionless soil. Int J Geomech 18:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0001212 Google Scholar
  25. Jones C (1996) Earth reinforcement and soil structures. Thomas Telford Services Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Kame GS, Dewaikar DM, Choudhury D (2012) Pullout capacity of a vertical plate anchor embedded in cohesionless soil. Geomech Eng Int J 4:105–120.  https://doi.org/10.5539/esr.v1n1p27 Google Scholar
  27. Khan AJ, Mostofa G, Jadid R (2017) Pullout resistance of concrete anchor block embedded in cohesionless soil. Geomech Eng Int J 12:675–688.  https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2017.12.4.675 Google Scholar
  28. Kumar J, Sahoo JP (2012) Upper bound solution for pullout capacity of vertical anchors in sand using finite elements and limit analysis. Int J Geomech 12:333–337.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000160 Google Scholar
  29. Merifield RS, Sloan SW (2006) The ultimate pullout capacity of anchors in frictional soils. Can Geotech J 43:852–868.  https://doi.org/10.1139/t06-052 Google Scholar
  30. Murray EJ, Geddes JD (1989) Resistance of passive inclined anchors in cohesionless medium. Géotechnique 39:417–431Google Scholar
  31. Naser AS (2006) Pullout capacity of block anchor in unsaturated sand. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on unsaturated soils, Arizona, pp 403–414Google Scholar
  32. NAVFAC DM 7.02 (1986) Foundations and earth structures. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  33. Neely WJ, Stuart JG, Graham J (1973) Failure loads of vertical anchor plates in sand. J Geotech Eng Div (ASCE) 99:669–685Google Scholar
  34. Ovesen NK (1964) Anchor slabs calculation methods and model tests, vol 16. Bulletin. Danish Geotechnical Institute, Copenhagen, pp 5–39Google Scholar
  35. Ovesen NK (1981) Centrifuge tests of the uplift capacity of anchors. In: Proceedings of 10th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Stockholm, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp 717–722Google Scholar
  36. Ovesen NK, Stromann H (1972) Design methods of vertical anchor slabs in sand. In: Proceedings of specialty conference on performance of earth and earth-supported structures (ASCE), Indiana, vol 2.1, pp 1481–1500Google Scholar
  37. Rowe RK, Davis H (1982) The behavior of anchor plates in sand. Géotechnique 32:25–41.  https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1982.32.1.25 Google Scholar
  38. Shahriar AR (2018) Development of an analytical model for the analysis of pullout capacity of anchors embedded in frictional soils. MSc thesis, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith JE (1962) Deadman anchorages in sand. U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  40. Tan CK, Duncan JM (1991) Settlement of footings on sands-accuracy and reliability. Geotechn Eng Congr 1:446–455Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringBangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)DhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations