Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 251–266 | Cite as

Application of Improved Calculation Method Considering the Vehicle Loads in Branch Utility Tunnel

  • Liyun TangEmail author
  • Yong Quan
  • Yan Zhu
  • Jiami Xi
  • Peiyong Qiu
  • Feixiang Sun
Original Paper


Aiming to study the influence of vehicle loads on the stability of branch utility tunnel during construction, the equivalent substitution of soil layer method without considering the change of rupture angle caused by vehicle loads is improved. According to the fracture mechanism of surrounding rocks, the deadweight of failure wedge is calculated when considering vehicle loads. Combined with the failure wedge equilibrium relation, the rupture angle is calculated by using extremum principle, and the equivalent soil layer with a new thickness is obtained to simplify vehicle loads. Based on the branch utility tunnel project in the city municipal pipeline, vehicle loads are simplified by using the conventional method, the equivalent substitution of soil layer method and the improved method respectively. The rupture angle and the thickness of equivalent soil layer calculated by the improved method are 58° and 0.53 m,which reduces 6.4 and 16% respectively compared with the equivalent substitution of soil layer method; the stress, vertical displacement of the segment and the ground settlement are analyzed among the three methods. It’s concluded that the improved method can be more effective and reasonable to reflect the effects of vehicle loads during the construction of the branch utility tunnel.


Vehicle loads Branch utility tunnel The improved equivalent substitution of soil layer method Stability 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41502298), the Key Plan for Innovative Science and Technology Groups of Shanxi Province of China (No. 2014KCT-30), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2016M592816) and the Key Laboratory of Western Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering Ministry of Education (No. 310826161110).


  1. Beskou ND, Hatzigeorgiou GD, Theodorakopoulos DD (2016) Dynamic elastic analysis of 3-D flexible pavements under moving vehicles: a unified FEM treatment. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 82:63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buhari R, Rohani MM, Abdullah ME (2013) Dynamic load coefficient of tyre forces from truck axles. Appl Mech Mater 2685(405):1900–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai YQ, Cao ZG, Sun HL et al (2009) Dynamic response of pavements on poroelastic half-space soil medium to a moving traffic load. Comput Geotech 36(1–2):52–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao YW, Liang NW, Yu Q et al (2008) Calculating method of vehicle dynamic load caused by uneven pavement. J Traffic Transp Eng 8(2):69–73Google Scholar
  5. Cheng LB, Chen YL, Wang SR et al (2017) Analysis of ground settlement induced by super-diameter shield construction. J Water Resour Water Eng 28(1):226–235Google Scholar
  6. GB50838 (2015) Technical code for urban utility tunnel engineeringGoogle Scholar
  7. He NN, Li P, Shao SJ et al (2012) Ground settlement monitoring above Xi’an Metro tunnel through the saturated soft loess. J Earth Sci Environ 34(1):96–103Google Scholar
  8. Horn R, Fleige H (2003) A method for assessing the impact of load on mechanical stability and on physical properties of soils. Soil Tillage Res 73(1–2):89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. JTG B01 (2014) Technical standard of highway engineering chineseGoogle Scholar
  10. JTG D70 (2014) Code for design of road tunnel chineseGoogle Scholar
  11. JTG D30 (2015) Specifications for design of highway subgrades chineseGoogle Scholar
  12. JTG D60 (2015) General code for design of highway bridges and culverts chineseGoogle Scholar
  13. Ju Y, Xu GQ, Mao LT et al (2005) 3D Numerical simulation of stress and strain properties of concrete shield tunnel lining and modeling experiments. Eng Mech 22(3):157–165Google Scholar
  14. Lai YM, Xu XT, Yu WB et al (2014) An experimental investigation of the mechanical behavior and a hyperplastic constitutive model of frozen loess. Int J Eng Sci 84(29–53):29–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Law S, Wu S (2011) Dynamic analysis of bridge with non-Gaussian uncertainties under moving vehicles. Probab Eng Mech 26(2):281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li X (2018) The monitoring and regularity analysis of ground surface settlement data in subway tunnel construction. J Chifeng Univ (Nat Sci Edn) 34(4):120–122Google Scholar
  17. Li B, Gao YF, Wei DX et al (2005) Research on influential depth of vehicle loads and its influencing factors. Rocks Soil Mech 26(Supp):310–313Google Scholar
  18. Liang Z (1999) Some mechanical problems in petroleum engineering, 1st edn. Petroleum Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  19. Lillig DB, Newbury BD, Altstadt SA (2009) The second ISOPE strain-based design symposium—a review. In: Proceedings of the international society of offshore and polar engineering conference. OsakaGoogle Scholar
  20. Lin JH (2014) Variations in dynamic vehicle load on road pavement. Int J Pavement Eng 15(6):558–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lu Z, Yao HL, Wu WP et al (2012) Dynamic stress and deformation of a layered road structure under vehicle traffic loads: experimental measurements and numerical calculations. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 39:100–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Park D, Sagong M, Kwak DY et al (2009) Simulation of tunnel response under spatially varying ground motion. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 29(11–12):1417–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pi YX (2013) Numerical analysis of shallow-buried road tunnel lining under traffic load. Sci Consult 34(48):77–79Google Scholar
  24. Qiu MY, Yu YN (2010) Analysis of influence depth for roads induced by vehicle load. Rocks Soil Mech 31(6):1822–1826Google Scholar
  25. Rakitin B, Xu M (2014) Centrifuge modeling of large-diameter underground pipes subjected to heavy traffic loads. Can Geotech J 51(4):353–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rakitin B, Xu M (2015) Centrifuge testing to simulate buried reinforced concrete pipe joints subjected to traffic loading. Can Geotech J 52(11):1762–1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shao ZS, Fan YG, Wang XY (2016) Research on effect of traffic Loads on stability of shallow buried loess tunnel. Chin J Appl Mech 33(2):299–306Google Scholar
  28. Shi XM, Cai CS (2009) Simulation of dynamic effects of vehicles on pavement using a 3D interaction model. J Transp Eng 135(10):736–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Song HR, Zhang DL, Fang Q (2015) Solution to surrounding rocks stress of shallow tunnel under ground load and deadweight. China Railw Sci 36(5):54–60Google Scholar
  30. Tang L, Hu J, Zhang Q, Yang G, Xi J, Qiu P (2016a) Settlement prediction by fitted peck formula based on maximum likelihood estimation method. Electron J Geotech Eng 21:7741–7754Google Scholar
  31. Tang L, Qiu P, Schlinger CM et al (2016b) Analysis of the influence of vehicle loads on deep underground excavation-supporting structures. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Civ Eng 40(3):209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tang L, Qiu P, Yang G, Xi J, Wu D (2018a) An approach to simplify the vehicle load in excavation-supporting structures design. Eur J Environ Civ Eng. Google Scholar
  33. Tang LY, Wang BC, Wu YM et al (2018b) The impact analysis of vibration on nearby municipal tunnel induced by metro running. J Eng. Google Scholar
  34. Wang XK, Jiang PW (2016) Vibration analysis of a multi-span continuous bridge subject to complex traffic loading and vehicle dynamic interaction. Struct Eng 20(1):323–332Google Scholar
  35. Wang ZL, Shen LF, Yao J et al (2010) Calculation of stress field in surrounding rocks of shallow tunnel using computational function of complex variable method. Rocks Soil Mech 31(S):86–90Google Scholar
  36. Wang XL, Shuai J, Zhang JQ (2011) Mechanical response analysis of buried pipeline crossing mining subsidence area. Rock Soil Mech 32(11):3373–3378Google Scholar
  37. Wyss JC, Su D, Fujino Y (2011) Prediction of vehicle induced local responses and application to a skewed girder bridge. Eng Struct 33(24):1088–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xu XT, Dong YH, Fan CX (2015) Laboratory investigation on energy dissipation and damage characteristics of frozen loess during deformation process. Cold Reg Sci Technol 109(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu XT, Wang YB, Bai RQ et al (2016a) Effects of sodium sulfate content on mechanical behavior of frozen silty sand considering concentration of saline solution. Results Phys 6(C):1000–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xu XT, Wang YB, Bai RQ et al (2016b) Comparative studies on mechanical behavior of frozen natural saline silty sand and frozen desalted silty sand. Cold Reg Sci Technol 132:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xu XT, Wang YB, Yin ZH et al (2017) Effect of temperature and strain rate on mechanical characteristics and constitutive model of frozen Helin loess. Cold Reg Sci Technol 136:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamamoto K, Lyamin AV, Wilson DW et al (2011a) Stability of a single tunnel in cohesive-frictional soil subjected to surcharge loading. Can Geotech J 48(12):1841–1854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yamamoto K, Lyamin AV, Wilson DW et al (2011b) Stability of dual circular tunnels in cohesive-frictional soil subjected to surcharge loading. Can Geotech J 38(4):504–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yamamoto K, Lyamin AV, Wilson DW et al (2014) Stability of dual square tunnels in cohesive-frictional soil subjected to surcharge loading. Can Geotech J 51(8):829–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ye SQ, Tang HM, Xiao SX et al (2006) Analysis on effect of traffic loads on landslide stability. J Chongqing Jianzhu Univ 28(5):106–109Google Scholar
  46. Yuan F, Wang L, Guo Z, Xie Y (2012) A refined analytical model for landslide or debris flow impact on pipelines—Part II: Embedded pipelines. Appl Ocean Res 35:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yuan ZH, Xu CJ, Cai YQ et al (2015) Dynamic response of a tunnel buried in a saturated poroelastic soil layer to a moving point load. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 77:348–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang G, Zhang J (2006) Monotonic and cyclic tests of interface between structure and gravelly soil. Soils Found 46(4):505–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang G, Zhang J (2009) State of the art: mechanical behavior of soil between structure and gravelly soil. Soils Found 46(4):50Google Scholar
  50. Zhang H, Zhang J, Liu S (2016) Mechanical properties of the buried pipeline under impact load caused by adjacent heavy tamping construction. J Fail Anal Prev 16(4):647–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liyun Tang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yong Quan
    • 1
  • Yan Zhu
    • 2
  • Jiami Xi
    • 1
  • Peiyong Qiu
    • 1
  • Feixiang Sun
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Architecture and Civil EngineeringXi’an University of Science and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.Xi’an International UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations