Advertisement

Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 2455–2477 | Cite as

Modelling of Climate Induced Moisture Variations and Subsequent Ground Movements in Expansive Soils

  • A. M. A. N. Karunarathne
  • M. Fardipour
  • E. F. Gad
  • P. Rajeev
  • M. M. Disfani
  • S. Sivanerupan
  • J. L. Wilson
Original paper

Abstract

Expansive behaviour of soil in response to moisture changes is a significant issue for lightly loaded structures. Recent reports have shown more than 4000 houses in Victoria, Australia have been damaged due to abnormal moisture changes beneath footings. For design purposes, the moisture change due to climate is crucial. This paper provides details of modelling of climate induced soil moisture changes and subsequent ground movements. The soil moisture variation due to climate was modelled using Vadose/w for two sites in Melbourne, Australia. The model was validated against the regular measurements from the field. The predicted soil moistures from the Vadose/w model were used to predict the possible ground movement using FLAC3D. The predicted ground movements were also validated using the field monitored ground movements at the sites. Further, the model was used to determine the possible ground movements due to long-term climate conditions. The model results demonstrate the reductions of soil moisture and shrinkage movements during the millennium drought. The model predictions also suggest that the soils have not been able to fully recover that moisture deficit through the drought breaking rains in 2010 and 2011. This model can be used to observe expectable ground movements due to climate changes and hence can greatly assess the footing performance for different climate scenarios.

Keywords

Expansive soil Modelling Ground movement Soil moisture Climate 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is funded by ARC linkage Project—LP100200306. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial and technical support provided by the collaborating organisations, namely; Victorian Building Authority (VBA), Victorian Office of Housing (OoH), Foundation and Footings Society of Victoria (FFSV), Association of Consulting Structural Engineers Victoria (ACSEV) and Housing Engineering Design and Research Association (HEDRA).

References

  1. AS2870 (2011) Residential slabs and footings. Standards Association of Australia, Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM-D2495 (1996) Standard test methods for one-dimensional consolidation properties of soils using incremental loading. D2495-96, ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  3. Atwell BJ, Kriedemann PE, Turnbull CGN (1999) Plants in action—adaptation in nature, performance in cultivation. Macmillan Education Australia Pty Ltd, Melbourne. http://plantsinaction.science.uq.edu.au/edition1/. Accessed 25 Feb 2015
  4. AUSTROADS (2004) Impact of climate change on road infrastructure. SydneyGoogle Scholar
  5. Benson CH, Trast JM (1995) Hydraulic conductivity of thirteen compacted clays. Clays Clay Miner 43:669–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BOM (2012) Special climate statement 38. Bureau of Meteorology, National Climate Centre, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  7. Corbitt RA (1999) Standard handbook of environmental engineering. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Dahlhaus PG, O’Rouke M (1991) The newer volcanics. In: Peck WA, Neilson JL, Olds RJ (eds). Engineering geology of Melbourne: proceedings of the seminar on engineering geology of Melbourne, 16 Sept 1992, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. A.A. BalkemaGoogle Scholar
  9. Fatahi B (2007) Modelling of influence of matric suction induced by native vegetation on sub-soil improvement. PhD thesis, University of WollongongGoogle Scholar
  10. Fredlund DG, Rahardjo H (1993) Soil mechanics for unsaturated soils. Wiley, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fredlund DG, Xing A, Huang S (1994) Predicting the permeability function for unsaturated soils using the soil–water characteristic curve. Can Geotech J 31:533–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fu X, Shao M, Lu D, Wang H (2011) Soil water characteristic curve measurement without bulk density changes and its implications in the estimation of soil hydraulic properties. Geoderma 167–168:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Geo-Slope (2013) Software tools for geotechnical solutions. http://www.geo-slope.com/. Accessed 01 Apr 2013
  14. Hung VQ (2002) Uncoupled and coupled solutions of volume change problems in expansive soils. PhD thesis, University of SaskatchewanGoogle Scholar
  15. Karunarathne AMAN, Sivanerupan S, Gad EF, Disfani MM, Rajeev P, Wilson JL, Li J (2014a) Field and laboratory investigation of an expansive soil site in Melbourne. Aust Geomech 49:85–93Google Scholar
  16. Karunarathne AMAN, Sivanerupan S, Gad EF, Disfani MM, Wilson JL, Li J (2014b) Field monitoring of seasonal ground movements in expansive soils in Melbourne. In: Khalili N, Russell A, Khoshghalb A (eds) ‘UNSAT 2014’, unsaturated soils: research and applications—the 6th international conference on unsaturated soils, 2–4 July 2014, Sydney, NSW. Taylor & Francis Group, pp 1359–1365Google Scholar
  17. Lopes D (1999) The prediction of shrinking and swelling ground movements in Eastern Australian soils. MSc thesis, Swinburne University of Technology, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  18. Lu N, Kaya M (2013) Power law for elastic moduli of unsaturated soil. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 139(5):724–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mann A (2003) The identification of road sections in Victoria displaying roughness caused by expansive soils. MSc thesis, Swinburne University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  20. MAPS (2015) Energy and earth resources—earth resources online store. http://dpistore.efirst.com.au/categories.asp?cID=4. Accessed 09 Feb 2015
  21. Mcmanus K, Lopes D, Osman NY (2004) The effect of Thornthwaite moisture index changes on ground movement predictions in Australian soils. In: 9th Australia–New Zealand conference on geomechanics, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  22. Mitchell PW (1979) The Structural analysis of footings on expansive soil. Kenneth W.G. Smith & Associates, NewtonGoogle Scholar
  23. Mitchell P (1984) A simple method of design of shallow footings on expansive soil. In: Institution of Engineers (ed) Fifth international conference on expansive soils, Adelaide, South Australia. The Institution, Barton, ACTGoogle Scholar
  24. Rajeev P, Kodikara J (2011) Numerical analysis of an experimental pipe buried in swelling soil. Comput Geotech 38:897–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rajeev P, Chan D, Kodikara J (2012) Ground–atmosphere interaction modelling for long-term prediction of soil moisture and temperature. Can Geotech J 49:1059–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Russam K, Coleman JD (1961) The effect of climatic factors on subgrade moisture conditions. Geotechnique 3:22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. THE-AGE (2014) Thousands of suburban home owners facing financial ruin. http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/thousands-of-suburban-home-owners-facing-financial-ruin-20140607-39q4z.html. Accessed 10 June 2014
  28. UMS (2013) HYPROP—laboratory evaporation method for the determination of pF-curves and unsaturated conductivity. http://www.ums-muc.de/en/products/soil_laboratory/hyprop.html. Accessed 29 Aug 2013
  29. Vadose (2013) Vadose zone modeling with VADOSE/W. Geo-Slope International Ltd., CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  30. van Genuchten MT (1980) A Closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vu HQ, Fredlund DG (2004) The prediction of one-, two-, and three-dimensional heave in expansive soils. Can Geotech J 41:713–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wilson GW (1990) Soil evaporative fluxes for geotechnical engineering problems. PhD thesis, University of SaskatchewanGoogle Scholar
  33. Wray WK (1997) Using soil suction to estimate differential soil shrink or heave. In: Proceedings of unsaturated soil engineering practice. Geotechnical special publication no. 68. ASCEGoogle Scholar
  34. Wray WK (1998) Mass transfer in unsaturated soils: a review of theory and practices. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on unsaturated soils, Beijing, China, pp 99–155Google Scholar
  35. Wray WK (2005) Three-dimensional model for moisture and volume changes prediction in expansive soils. J Geotech Geoenvironmental Eng 131:311–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. A. N. Karunarathne
    • 1
  • M. Fardipour
    • 1
  • E. F. Gad
    • 1
  • P. Rajeev
    • 1
  • M. M. Disfani
    • 2
  • S. Sivanerupan
    • 3
  • J. L. Wilson
    • 1
  1. 1.Swinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia
  2. 2.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Powercor Network ServicesMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations