Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 2217–2235 | Cite as

Effect of Geological Structure on Flyrock Prediction in Construction Blasting

  • Edy Tonnizam Mohamad
  • Chang Shiang Yi
  • Bhatawdekar Ramesh MurlidharEmail author
  • Rosli Saad
Original paper


Blasting is sometimes inevitable in civil engineering work, to fragment the massive rock to enable excavation and leveling. In Minyak Beku, Batu Pahat also, blasting is implemented to fragment the rock mass, to reduce the in situ rock level to the required platform for a building construction. However, during blasting work, some rocks get an excessive amount of explosive energy and this energy may generate flyrock. An accident occurred on 15 July 2015 due to this phenomenon, in which one of the workers was killed and two other workers were seriously injured after being hit by the flyrock. The purpose of this study is to investigate the causes of the flyrock accidents through evaluation of rock mass geological structures. The discontinuities present on the rock face were analyzed, to study how they affected the projection and direction of the flyrock. Rock faces with lower mean joint spacing and larger apertures caused excessive flyrock. Based on the steoreonet analysis, it was found that slope failures also produced a significant effect on the direction, if the rock face failure lay in the critical zone area. Empirical models are often used to predict flyrock projection. In this study five empirical models are used to compare the incidents. It was found that none of the existing formulas could accurately predict flyrock distance. Analysis shows that the gap between predicted and actual flyrock can be reduced by including blast deign and geological conditions in forecasts. Analysis revealed only 69% of accuracy could be achieved if blast design is the only parameter to be considered in flyrock projection and the rest is influenced by the geological condition. Other causes of flyrock are discussed. Comparison of flyrock prediction with face bursting, cratering and rifling is carried out with recent prediction models.


Construction blasting Flyrock Geological structures Empirical models 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edy Tonnizam Mohamad
    • 1
  • Chang Shiang Yi
    • 1
  • Bhatawdekar Ramesh Murlidhar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rosli Saad
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre of Tropical Geoengineering (Geotropik), Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  2. 2.Geophysical Section, School of PhysicsUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia

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