Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 116, Issue 1, pp 83–101 | Cite as

Energy efficiency, productivity and profitability of rice farming using Sesbania as green manure-cum-cover crop

  • S. K. RautarayEmail author
  • S. Pradhan
  • S. Mohanty
  • R. Dubey
  • S. Raychaudhuri
  • R. K. Mohanty
  • A. Mishra
  • S. K. Ambast
Original Article


Two field experiments were conducted at the Research Farm of ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Mendhasal, Odisha with wet season rice. The objective of the first experiment was to compare the effect of inorganic fertilizers (IF) with the integrated nutrient management (INM) using in situ green manure Sesbania and complimentary dose of IF on rice yield, energy use, economics and residual soil fertility. In the second experiment, the IF was compared with the organic nutrient management (ONM) using in situ green manure Sesbania and vermicompost. The results of the first experiment revealed that grain and straw yields of rice were similar with the INM and IF. However, the INM helped in reducing energy input (24%), improving energy efficiency (35%) and net return (20%). Soil organic C, available N and P contents increased significantly by 14%, 8% and 53%, respectively, for the INM at the end of 3 years. The results of the second experiment revealed that the ONM registered rice grain yield reduction by 8% but increased net return (8%) due to a higher premium of INR 1750 (US $ 26.21) t−1 paddy grain. The ONM treatment reduced energy input (39%) and enhanced energy efficiency (57%) as compared to the IF. Soil organic C, available N and P contents increased by 23%, 39% and 12%, respectively, for the ONM at the end of 3 years. Thus, the practice of ONM or INM using Sesbania green manure-cum-cover crop saved energy and fertilizer, and maintained soil fertility.


Economics Energy efficiency Lowland rice Inorganic fertilizer Integrated nutrient management Organic nutrient management Yield 


Supplementary material

10705_2019_10034_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12 kb)
10705_2019_10034_MOESM2_ESM.docx (37 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 36 kb)


  1. (2019) . Accessed 27 Aug 2019
  2. Agricultural policy monitoring and evaluation-OECD (2019) Accessed 25 Aug 2019
  3. Baishya A, Sharma GL (1990) Energy budgeting of rice: wheat cropping system. Ind J Agron 35:167–177Google Scholar
  4. Bangladesh-Ricepedia R (2019) The online authority on rice. Accessed 24 Aug 2019
  5. Becker M (2001) Potential and limitations of green manure technology in low land rice. J Agric Trop 102:91–108Google Scholar
  6. Becker M, Diekmann KH, Ladha JK, De Datta SK, Ottow JCG (1991) Effect of NPK on growth and nitrogen fixation of Sesbania rostrata as a green manure for lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Soil 132:149–158Google Scholar
  7. Becker M, Ladha JK, Ottow JCG (1994) Nitrogen losses and lowland rice yield as affected by residue N release. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:1660–1665Google Scholar
  8. Binning AS, Pathak BS, Panesar BS (1983) The energy audit of crop production system. Research Report. School ofenergy studies for agriculture. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, PunjabGoogle Scholar
  9. Blake GR, Hartge KH (1986) Bulk density. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. America, Inc., Madison, WI, pp 363–376Google Scholar
  10. Bray RH, Kurtz LT (1945) Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci 59:39–45Google Scholar
  11. Choudhary VK, Kumar PS, Bhagawati R (2013) Energy audit of rice production systems in different land forms in mid hills of Arunachal Pradesh. Oryza 50:140–145Google Scholar
  12. Deng MH, Shi XJ, Tian YH, Yin B, Zhang SL, Zhu ZL, Kimura SD (2012) Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer application for rice production in the Taihu Lake Region, China. Pedosphere 22:48–57Google Scholar
  13. Dhaka AK, Pannu RK, Satish K, Karmal M, Bhagat S (2015) Biological feasibility, economic viability and energy efficiency of intercropping fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in seed crop of dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata). Ind J Agric Sci 85:20–27Google Scholar
  14. Dhar AR, Islam MM, Ahmed JU (2017) Adoption of conservation agriculture in Bangladesh: problems and prospects. World J Agric Res 5:265–272Google Scholar
  15. Dubey L, Dubey M, Jain P (2015) Role of green manuring in organic farming. Plant Arch 15:23–26Google Scholar
  16. El-Dalil MAE, Abd-El Ghany EKE, El-Ezz A, Fouad A (2017) Yield, yield components and grain quality of Giza 179 Egyptian rice cultivar as affected by seeding rates and nitrogen levels using broadcasting planting method. Alexandria Sci Exchange J 38:707–715Google Scholar
  17. FAO (2012) FAOSTAT. Accessed 25 Aug 2019
  18. FAO (2015) World fertilizer trends and outlook to 2018. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations—Rome ISBN 978-92-5-108692-6, pp. 53Google Scholar
  19. George T, Buresh RJ, Ladha JJ, Punzalan G (1998) Recycling in situ of legume fixed and soil nitrogen in tropical lowland rice. Agron J 90:429–437Google Scholar
  20. Giorgi F, Raffaele F, Coppola E (2019) The response of precipitation characteristics to global warming from climate projections. Earth Syst Dynam 10:73–89Google Scholar
  21. Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research. Wiley, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  22. Gordon LJ, Finlayson CM, Falkenmark M (2010) Managing water in agriculture for food production and other ecosystem services. Agric Water Manage 97:512–519Google Scholar
  23. GRiSP (Global Rice Science Partnership) (2013) Rice almanac, 4th edn. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños (Philippines), p 283Google Scholar
  24. Gu B, Ju X, Chang J, Ge Y, Vitousek PM (2015) Integrated reactive nitrogen budgets and future trends in China. P Natl Acad Sci USA 112:8792–8797Google Scholar
  25. Gulati A, Banerjee P (2015) Rationalising Fertiliser subsidy in India: key issues and policy options. Working Paper 307. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations New Delhi, pp. 48Google Scholar
  26. Hiremath SM, Patel ZC (1998) Effect of winter green manuring and nitrogen on summer rice. Ind J Agron 43:71–76Google Scholar
  27. Hoeppner JW, Entz MH, McConkey BG, Zentner RP, Nagy CN (2006) Energy use and efficiency in two Canadian organic and conventional crop production systems. Renew Agric Food Syst 21:60–67Google Scholar
  28. Huang J, Gulati A, Gregory I (2017) Fertilizer subsidies-which way forward? An IDFC/FAI Annual Report, pp 307Google Scholar
  29. ICAR-IIWM (2019) Annual Report 2018-19. ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, p 92Google Scholar
  30. Jackson ML (1967) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, p 498Google Scholar
  31. Ju XT, Xing GX, Chen XP, Zhang SL, Zhang LJ, Liu XJ, Cui ZL, Yin B, Christie P, Zhu ZL, Zhang FS (2009) Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems. P Natl Acad Sci USA 106:3041–3046Google Scholar
  32. Kamboj BR, Kumar A, Bishnoi DK, Singla K, Kumar V, Jat ML, Chaudhary N, Jat HS, Gosain DK, Khippal A, Garg R, Lathwal OP, Goyal SP, Goyal NK, Yadav A, Malik DS, Mishra A, Bhatia R (2012) Direct seeded rice technology in Western Indo-Gangetic Plains of India: CSISA Experiences. IRRI and CIMMYT, CSISA, p 16Google Scholar
  33. Kondaguri R, Kunnal LB, Chourad R (2017) Comparative study of organic and inorganic paddy with reference to yield, market price and returns. Int Res J Agric Econ Stat 5:9–15Google Scholar
  34. Kumar V, Ladha JK (2011) Direct seeded rice: recent development and future research needs. Adv Agron 111:297–413Google Scholar
  35. Kundu DK, Ladha JK (1995) Enhancing soil nitrogen use and biological nitrogen fixation in wetland rice. Exp Agric 31:261–278Google Scholar
  36. Ladha JK, Garrity DP (1994) Green manure production systems for asian rice lands. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, p 195Google Scholar
  37. Lowder SK, Skoet J, Singh S (2014) What do we really know about the number and distribution of farms and family farms worldwide? Background paper for The State of Food and Agriculture, ESA Working Paper No 14-02, FAO RomeGoogle Scholar
  38. Mandal KG, Saha KP, Ghosh PK, Hati KM, Bandyopadhyay KK (2002) Bioenergy and economic analysis of soybean-based crop production systems in central India. Biomass Bioenergy 23:337–345Google Scholar
  39. Mar M, Saing I, Thein U, Paris RK (1995) Sesbania green manure programme for rice farming in Myanmar. In: Proceedings of international rice research conference, pp. 21–25 April 1992. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  40. McLean J (1997) Rice Almanac. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, p 181Google Scholar
  41. Mishra A, James BK, Mohanty RK, Anand PSB (2014) Conservation and efficient utilization of rainwater in the rainfed shallow lowland paddy fields of Eastern India. Paddy Water Environ, 12:25–34Google Scholar
  42. Mittal JP, Dhawan KC (1988) Research manual on energy requirements in agricultural sector. In: Ind Council Agric Res New Delhi, pp 23Google Scholar
  43. Namdev GP, Shrivastav A, Awasthi PK (2013) Economic viability of organic paddy production in central India. Agric Sci Digest 33:241–246Google Scholar
  44. NCAT (2014) Nutrient Management Plan (590) for organic systems- California Implementation Guide. National Centre for Appropriate Technology, p. 30Google Scholar
  45. Nemecek T, Erzinger S (2005) Modelling representative life cycle inventories for Swiss arable crops. Int J Life Cycle Ass 10:68–76Google Scholar
  46. Nitrogen and Water– (2019) Accessed 8 Aug 2019
  47. Panesar BS, Bhatnagar AP (1994) Energy norms for inputs and outputs of agricultural sector. In: Verma SR, Mittal JP, Singh S (eds) Energy management and conservation in agricultural production and food processing. USG Publishers & Distributors, Ludhiana, p 16Google Scholar
  48. Peoples MB, Herridge D, Ladha JK (1995) Biological nitrogen fixation: an efficient source of nitrogen for sustainable agricultural production. Plant Soil 174:3–28Google Scholar
  49. Peoples MB, Swan AD, Goward L, Kirkegaard JA, Hunt JR, Li GD, Schwenke GD, Herridge DF, Moodie M, Wilhelm N, Potter T, Denton MD, Browne C, Phillips LA, Khan DF (2017) Soil mineral nitrogen benefits from legumes and comparisons of the apparent recovery of legume fertiliser nitrogen by wheat. Soil Res 55:600–615Google Scholar
  50. Pingali PL, Moya PF, Velasco LE (1990) The post-green revolution blues in Asian rice production. International Rice research Institute social science divison paper series No 90-01. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines. pp 29Google Scholar
  51. Piper CS (1966) Soil and plant analysis. Hans Publisher, BombayGoogle Scholar
  52. Place F, Barrett CB, Freeman HA, Ramisch JJ, Vanlauwe B (2003) Prospects for integrated soil fertility management using organic and inorganic inputs: evidence from smallholder African agricultural systems. Food Policy 28:365–378Google Scholar
  53. Ramchandra TV, Nagarathna AV (2001) Energetics in paddy cultivation in Uttara Kannada district. Energ Convers Manage 42:131–155Google Scholar
  54. Rautaray SK (2005) Nutrient dynamics, dehydrogenase activity, and response of the rice plant to fertilization sources in an acid lateritic soil. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Plant soil sci 55:162–169Google Scholar
  55. Rautaray SK (2019) Sesbania reduces fertilizer use and increases energy efficiency and profits of rice crop. Indian Farm 69:41–44Google Scholar
  56. Rautaray SK, Ghosh BC, Mitra BN (2003a) Efficacy of organic materials on growth and yield of rice as influenced by time of application under integrated nutrient management. Oryza 40:18–21Google Scholar
  57. Rautaray SK, Ghosh BC, Mittra BN (2003b) Effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake, heavy metal content and residual fertility in a rice-mustard cropping sequence under acid lateritic soils. Bioresource Techno 90:275–283Google Scholar
  58. Rautaray SK, Srivastava RC, Mohanty S, Raychaudhuri S (2016) Designing of a self-reliant farming system for small holder farm in high rainfall areas. J Ind Soc Coastal Agric Res 34(1):33–39Google Scholar
  59. Rautaray SK, Mishra A, Verma OP (2017) Energy efficiency, productivity, and profitability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) based cropping systems for selected conservation practices. Arch Agron Soil Sci 63:1993–2006Google Scholar
  60. Raza S, Zhou J, Aziz T, Afzal MR, Ahmed M, Javaid S, Chen Z (2018) Piling up reactive nitrogen and declining nitrogen use efficiency in Pakistan: a challenge not challenged (1961–2013). Environ Res Lett 13:034012Google Scholar
  61. Ricepedia (2019) The online authority on rice. The global staple.
  62. Robertson GP (2015) A sustainable agriculture? Daedalus. The J Am Acad Arts Sci 144:76–89Google Scholar
  63. Schrama M, De Haan JJ, Kroonen M, Verstegen H, Van der Putten WH (2018) Crop yield gap and stability in organic and conventional farming systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 256:123–130Google Scholar
  64. Seitzinger S (2008) Nitrogen cycle: out of reach. Nature 452:162–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Shreve F (1914) Rainfall as a determinant of soil moisture. Plant World 17:9–26Google Scholar
  66. Slayton T (2009) Rice crisis forensics: how asian governments carelessly set the world rice market on fire. CGD Working Paper 163. Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C..
  67. Smith EG, Clapperton MJ, Blackshaw RE (2004) Profitability and risk of organic production systems in the northern Great Plains. Renew Agric Food Syst 19:152–158Google Scholar
  68. Stuart AM, Devkota KP, Sato T, Pame ARP, Balingbing C, Phung NT, Hieu PTM, Long TH, Beebout S, Singleton GR (2018) On-farm assessment of different rice crop management practices in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, using sustainability performance indicators. Field Crop Res 229:103–114Google Scholar
  69. Subbiah BV, Asija GL (1956) A rapid procedure for the determination of available nitrogen in soil. Curr Sci 25:259–260Google Scholar
  70. Surekha K, Satishkumar YS (2014) Productivity, nutrient balance, soil quality, and sustainability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under organic and conventional production systems. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 45:415–428Google Scholar
  71. The global staple-Ricpedia (2019) Rice pedia, The online authority on rice. Accessed 25 Aug 2019
  72. Venturi P, Venturi G (2003) Analysis of energy comparison for crops in European agricultural systems. Biomass Bioenergy 25:235–255Google Scholar
  73. Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37:29–37Google Scholar
  74. West PC, Gerber JS, Engstrom PM, Mueller ND, Brauman KA, Carlson KM, Cassidy ES, Johnston M, MacDonald GK, Ray DK, Siebert S (2014) Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment. Science 345:325–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Yadav JSP (2002) Agricultural resources management in India: the challenges. J Agric Water Manage 1:61–69Google Scholar
  76. Yadav SK, Babu S, Yadav MK, Singh K, Yadav GS, Pal S (2013) A review of organic farming for sustainable agriculture in Northern India. Int J Agron 2013:1–8Google Scholar
  77. Zhao X, Xie YX, Xiong ZQ, Yan XY, Xing GX, Zhu ZL (2009) Nitrogen fate and environmental consequence in paddy soil under rice-wheat rotation in the Taihu Lake region, China. Plant Soil 319:225–234Google Scholar
  78. Zhu ZL, Zhang SL, Yin B, Yan XY (2010) Historical comparison on the response curves of rice yield-nitrogen application rate in Tai Lake region. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 16:1–5Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Rautaray
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Pradhan
    • 1
  • S. Mohanty
    • 1
  • R. Dubey
    • 1
  • S. Raychaudhuri
    • 1
  • R. K. Mohanty
    • 1
  • A. Mishra
    • 1
  • S. K. Ambast
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Water ManagementChandrasekharpur, BhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations