Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 114, Issue 3, pp 277–293 | Cite as

Surface and subsurface N2O losses from dairy cropping systems

  • Jessica Quesnel
  • Andrew C. VanderZaagEmail author
  • Anna Crolla
  • Christopher Kinsley
  • Edward G. Gregorich
  • Claudia Wagner-Riddle
Original Article
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

Dairy rotations rely on corn silage, which is estimated to have significant nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. This study examined whether including legumes within rotations can reduce N2O emissions from the soil surface and dissolved in tile-drainage water. Emissions of N2O were measured from the soil surface and in tile drainage. Cropping systems were: corn–corn (CC), corn + cover crop-corn (C + cc), soybean–corn (SC) and alfalfa–alfalfa (AA) on a clay soil. Liquid dairy manure provided 2-year total N inversely related to legume cropping: 310 (CC), 280 (C + cc), 110 (SC), 50 kg N ha−1 (AA). Losses of N2O via tile drainage were 0.1–0.3% of total emissions. Ratios of N2O-N to NO3-N in drainage were at least 63% lower than the IPCC default value (0.0075). Reductions of N2O emissions were only observed from established alfalfa in year 2. Compared to the SC treatment, which had the highest emissions in year 2, the AA treatment had 62% lower surface N2O and 88% lower dissolved N2O flux. Alfalfa had low yield in the first year, which led to high yield-scaled N2O emissions; thus, alfalfa may need to be grown 4 years to achieve a similar average yield scaled emission factor as CC. Silage corn had consistently high yield, averaging 317 kg ha−1 yr−1 for N yield, which was 36% higher than AA. As a result, CC had the lowest N2O emissions scaled by N-yield over the 2 years, averaging 2.6% of N-yield, which was 59% lower than AA on average.

Keywords

Indirect greenhouse gas emissions Dissolved nitrous oxide Dairy cropping systems Crop rotation Nitrogen fixation Tile drainage Liquid dairy manure 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project was funded by: (1) Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs, (2) University of Guelph, (3) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Abase program, and (4) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program. Thanks to Kristina Vasiljevic, Amanda Eliot, Dirk Anderson, Vera Bosak, and Hambaliou Baldé for assistance.

Supplementary material

10705_2019_10004_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. Bolinder MA, Angers DA, Bélanger G, Michaud R, Laverdière MR (2002) Root biomass and shoot to root ratios of perennial forage crops in eastern Canada. Can J Plant Sci 82:731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burton DL, Beauchamp EG (1994) Profile nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide concentrations in a soil subject to freezing. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Butterbach-Bahl K, Baggs EM, Dannenmann M, Kiese R, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368(1621):20130122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Collier SM, Dean AP, Oates LG, Ruark MD, Jackson RD (2016) Does plant biomass manipulation in static chambers affect nitrous oxide emissions from soils? J Environ Qual 45(2):751–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davidson EA, Verchot LV (2000) Testing the hole-in-the-pipe model of nitric and nitrous oxide emissions from soils using the TRAGNET Database. Global Biogeochem Cycles 14(4):1035–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dowdell RJ, Burford JR, Crees R (1979) Losses of nitrous oxide dissolved in drainage water from agricultural land. Nature 278:342–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dusenbury MP, Engel RE, Miller PR, Lemke RL, Wallander R (2008) Nitrous oxide emissions from a Northern Great Plains soil as influenced by nitrogen management and cropping systems. J Environ Qual 37(2):542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eaton AD, Franson MA et al (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water & wastewater, 21st edn. American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  9. Environment Canada (2008) Canada’s National Inventory Report 1990–2006. Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada. Government of Canada, pp 1–620. ISBN: 978-1-100-11176-6. Cat. no.: En81-4/2006EGoogle Scholar
  10. Firestone MK, Davidson EA (1989) Microbial basis of NO and N2O production and consumption in soil. In: Andreae MO, Schimel DS (eds) Exchange of trace gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 7–21Google Scholar
  11. Gregorich EG, Drury CF, Baldock JA (2001) Changes in soil carbon under long-term maize in monoculture and legume-based rotation. Can J Soil Sci 81:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gregorich E, Rochette P, Vandenbygaart A, Angers D (2005) Greenhouse gas contributions of agricultural soils and potential mitigation practices in Eastern Canada. Soil Tillage Res 83(1):53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hawkins J, Weersink A, Wagner-Riddle C, Fox G (2015) Optimizing ration formulation as a strategy for greenhouse gas mitigation in intensive dairy production systems. Agric Syst 137:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories—A primer. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston HS, Miwa K, Srivastava N, Tanabe K (eds). IGES, Japan, http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/support/Primer_2006GLs.pdf. Accessed online 01.05.2017
  15. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013a) Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis, the IPCC WGI contribution to the fifth assessment report, report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, edited by Stocker TF et al (eds), p 999, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013b) Annex II: climate system scenario tables, in Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, edited by Stocker TF et al (eds), pp 1395–1446, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. Maag M, Vinther FP (1996) Nitrous oxide emission by nitrification and denitrification in different soil types and at different soil moisture contents and temperatures. Appl Soil Ecol 4:5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. MacKenzie AF, Fan MX, Cadrin F (1998) Nitrous oxide emissions in three years as affected by tillage, corn–soybean–alfalfa rotation, and nitrogen fertilization. J Environ Qual 27(3):698–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Minamikawa K, Nishimura S, Sawamoto T, Nakajima Y, Yagi K (2010) Annual emissions of dissolved CO2, CH4, and N2O in the subsurface drainage from three cropping systems. Glob Change Biol 16(2):796–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. National Research Council (NRC) (2001) Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. Seventh Revised Edition ed. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, https://www.nap.edu/read/9825/chapter/1. Accessed online 02.05.2017
  21. OMAFRA (2017) Agronomy guide for field crops. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs, Publication 811, Queens Printer, Toronto Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  22. Pearce RJ (2017) Legacy effects of long-term manure applications on soil-derived nitrous oxide emissions. MSc thesis, University of SaskatchewanGoogle Scholar
  23. Phillips RL (2007) Organic agriculture and nitrous oxide emissions at sub-zero soil temperatures. J Environ Qual 36(1):23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reay DS, Smith KA, Edwards AC (2003) Nitrous oxide emission from agricultural drainage waters. Glob Change Biol 9:195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reay DS, Smith KA, Edwards AC (2004) Nitrous oxide in agricultural drainagewaters following field fertilisation. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 4:437–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reay DS, Edwards AC, Smith KA (2009) Importance of indirect nitrous oxide emissions at the field, farm and catchment scale. Agr Ecosyst Environ 133(3–4):163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Risk N, Snider D, Wagner-Riddle C (2013) Mechanisms leading to enhanced soil nitrous oxide fluxes induced by freeze–thaw cycles. Can J Soil Sci 93(4):401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Risk N, Wagner-Riddle C, Furon A, Warland J, Blodau C (2014) Comparison of simultaneous soil profile N2O concentration and surface N2O flux measurements overwinter and at spring thaw in an agricultural soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 78(1):180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rochette P (2011) Towards a standard non-steady-state chamber methodology for measuring soil N2O emissions. Anim Feed Sci Technol 166–167:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rochette P, Angers DA, Bélanger G, Chantigny MH, Prévost D, Lévesque G (2004) Emissions of N2O from alfalfa and soybean crops in Eastern Canada. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:493–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Roper JD (2008) Influence of tillage practices on surface and subsurface nitrogen emissions from agricultural soils. MSc thesis, Dalhousie University Halifax, NSGoogle Scholar
  32. Roper JD, Burton DL, Madani A, Stratton GW (2013) A simple method for quantifying dissolved nitrous oxide in tile drainage water. Can J Soil Sci 93(1):59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schwager EA, VanderZaag AC, Wagner-Riddle C, Crolla A, Kinsley C, Gregorich E (2016) Field nitrogen losses induced by application timing of digestate from dairy manure biogas production. J Environ Qual 45:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Syväsalo E, Regina K, Pihlatie M, Esala M (2004) Emissions of nitrous oxide from boreal agricultural clay and loamy sand soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 69:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Uchida Y, Akiyama H (2013) Mitigation of postharvest nitrous oxide emissions from soybean ecosystems: a review. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 59(4):477–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. van Groenigen JW, Kasper GJ, Velthof GL, van den Pol-van Dasselaar A, Kuikman PJ (2004) Nitrous oxide emissions from silage maize fields under different mineral nitrogen fertilizer and slurry applications. Plant Soil 263:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. van Groenigen JW, Georgius PJ, van Kessel C, Hummelink EWJ, Velthof GL, Zwart KB (2005) Subsoil 15N-N2O concentrations in a sandy soil profile after application of 15N-fertilizer. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 72(1):13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vance CP (1997) Nitrogen fixation capacity. In: McKersie BD, Brown DCW (eds) Biotechnology and the improvement of forage legumes. The Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI), WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  39. Venterea RT, Bijesh M, Dolan MS (2011) Fertilizer source and tillage effects on yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in a corn cropping system. J Environ Qual 40(5):1521–1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vergé XPC, Dyer JA, Desjardins RL, Worth D (2007) Greenhouse gas emissions from the Canadian dairy industry in 2001. Agric Syst 94(3):683–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vergé XPC, Maxime D, Dyer JA, Desjardins RL, Arcand Y, VanderZaag AC (2013) Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues. J Dairy Sci 96(9):6091–6104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wagner-Riddle C, Thurtell GW, Kidd GK, Beauchamp EG, Sweetman R (1997) Estimates of nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields over 28 months. Can J Soil Sci 77:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wagner-Riddle C, Furon A, McLaughlin NL, Lee I, Barbeau J, Jayasundara S, Parkin G, von Bertoldi P, Warland J (2007) Intensive measurement of nitrous oxide emissions from a corn–soybean–wheat rotation under two contrasting management systems over 5 years. Glob Change Biol 13(8):1722–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wagner-Riddle C, Congreves KA, Abalos D, Berg AA, Brown SE, Ambadan JT, Gao X, Tenuta M (2017) Globally important nitrous oxide emissions from croplands induced by freeze–thaw cycles. Nat Geosci 10:279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) (2014) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2014 global ozone research and monitoring project-rep. 56, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang L, Cai Z (2005) The effect of growing soybean (Glycine max. L.) on N2O emission from soil. Soil Biol Biochem 37(6):1205–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Crown 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  3. 3.Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural AffairsKemptvilleCanada
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations