Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 114, Issue 1, pp 33–44 | Cite as

Mass balance assessment of phosphorus dynamics in a fertilizer trial with 57 years of superphosphate application under irrigated grazed pasture

  • Jihui TianEmail author
  • Gustavo Boitt
  • Amanda Black
  • Steven Wakelin
  • Lijun Chen
  • Kunzheng Cai
  • Leo Condron
Original Article
  • 63 Downloads

Abstract

Improving the efficiency of phosphorus (P) use is a major challenge for agricultural production and sustainability. Using a combination of new and historic data, a mass balance approach was employed to construct and discuss a comprehensive P budget under temperate irrigated grazed pasture that had received different inputs of superphosphate fertilizer for 57 years [nil (Control), 188 kg ha−1 (188PA) and 376 kg ha−1 (376PA)]. Most (97–99%) of the applied P was accounted for in soil storage, plant residues, removal in animal products, excretal transfers, losses via irrigation outwash, rainfall runoff and leaching in the soil–plant–animal system. Management of soil available P that exceed the critical level (17–22 mg L−1) for optimal pasture production can result in low P balance efficiency and excessive soil legacy P in the soil profile (0–1 m). Results of this study revealed that accumulation of P in soil and plants (68–80%), P losses by irrigation outwash (8–11%), and excretal transfers to stock camps (6–12%) were important factors that determined applied P use efficiency. These findings highlight the need to apply appropriate quantities of P fertilizer to maintain optimal soil P fertility, plant growth, and animal production, together with enhanced utilization of accumulated soil P and reduced P transfer in drainage.

Keywords

Phosphorus fate Legacy phosphorus Phosphorus use efficiency Long-term field trial Soil profile 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding for this study was provided by the Integrated Demonstration of Key Techniques for the Industrial Development of Featured Crops in Rocky Desertification Areas of Yunnan–Guangxi–Guizhou Provinces, the Agricultural and Marketing Research and Development Trust (AGMARDT), the New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and Environment Canterbury.

References

  1. Boitt G, Tian J, Black A, Wakelin SA, Condron LM (2018) Effects of long-term irrigation on soil phosphorus under temperate grazed pasture. Euro J Soil Sci 69:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown M (1981) Analysis reveals drastic decline in superphosphate quality [in New Zealand between 1970 and 1980]. NZ Farmer 102:10–13Google Scholar
  3. Condron LM (2004) Phosphorus–surplus and deficiency. In: Schjonning P, Elmholt S, Christensen BT (eds) Managing soil quality—challenges in modern agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Condron LM, Hopkins DW, Gregorich EG, Black A, Wakelin SA (2014) Long-term irrigation effects on soil organic matter under temperate grazed pasture. Euro J Soil Sci 65:741–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dodd RJ, McDowell RW, Condron LM (2012) Predicting the changes in environmentally and agronomically significant phosphorus forms following the cessation of phosphorus fertilizer applications to grassland. Soil Use Manag 28:135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elser J, Bennett E (2011) A broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature 478:29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fortune S, Lu J, Addiscott TM, Brookes PC (2005) Assessment of phosphorus leaching losses from arable land. Plant Soil 269:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gburek WJ, Barberis E, Haygarth PM, Kronvang B, Stamm C (2005) Phosphorus mobility in the landscape. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 941–979Google Scholar
  9. Haygarth PM, Jarvie HP, Powers SM, Sharpley AN, Elser JJ, Shen J, Peterson HM, Chan NI, Howden NJK, Burt T, Worrall F, Zhang F, Liu X (2014) sustainable phosphorus management and the need for a long-term perspective: the legacy hypothesis. Environ Sci Technol 48:8417–8419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kuo S (1996) Phosphorus. In: Sparks DL, Page AL, Helmke PA, Loeppert RH (eds) Methods of soil analysis part 3: chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 869–919Google Scholar
  11. Lewis D, Clarke A, Hall W (1987) Accumulation of plant nutrients and changes in soil properties of sandy soils under fertilized pasture in southeastern South-Australia. I. Phosphorus. Soil Res 25:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lun F, Liu J, Ciais P, Nesme T, Chang J, Wang R, Goll D, Sardans J, Penuelas J, Obersteiner M (2018) Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency. Earth Syst Sci Data 10:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McBride SD, Nguyen ML, Rickard DS (1990) Implications of ceasing annual superphosphate topdressing applications on pasture production. Proc N Z Grassl Assoc 52:177–180Google Scholar
  14. McCaskill MR, Cayley JWD (2000) Soil audit of a long-term phosphate experiment in south-western Victoria: total phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen, and major cations. Aust J Agric Res 51:737–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McDowell RW, Condron LM (2012) Phosphorus and the Winchmore trials: review and lessons learnt. N Z J Agric Res 55:119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McDowell RW, Rowley D (2008) The fate of phosphorus under contrasting border-check irrigation regimes. Soil Res 46:309–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McDowell RW, Monaghan RM, Carey PL (2003) Potential phosphorus losses in overland flow from pastoral soils receiving long-term applications of either superphosphate or reactive phosphate rock. N Z J Agric Res 46:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Menezes-Blackburn D, Giles C, Darch T, George TS, Blackwell M, Stutter M, Shand C, Lumsdon D, Cooper P, Wendler R, Brown L, Almeida DS, Wearing C, Zhang H, Haygarth PM (2017) Opportunities for mobilizing recalcitrant phosphorus from agricultural soils: a review. Plant Soil 427:5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Morton JD, Roberts AHC (2001) Pasture response to soil phosphorus levels measured under mowing and dairy grazing. N Z J Agric Res 44:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Murata T, Nguyen ML, Goh KM (1995) The effects of long-term superphosphate application on soil organic matter content and composition from an intensively managed New Zealand pasture. Euro J Soil Sci 46:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nguyen ML, Goh KM (1992) Nutrient cycling and losses based on a mass-balance model in grazed pastures receiving long-term superphosphate applications in New Zealand: 1. Phosphorus. J Agric Sci 119:89–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nguyen ML, Rickard SD, McBride SD (1989) Pasture production and changes in phosphorus and sulphur status in irrigated pastures receiving long-term applications of superphosphate fertilizer. N Z J Agric Res 32:245–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Richardson AE, Lynch JP, Ryan PR, Delhaize E, Smith FA, Smith SE, Harvey PR, Ryan MH, Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Oberson A, Culvenor RA, Simpson RJ (2011) Plant and microbial strategies to improve the phosphorus efficiency of agriculture. Plant Soil 349:121–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rickard DS, Moss RA (2012) Winchmore and the long-term trials: the early history. N Z J Agric Res 55:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ridley AM, Christy BP, White RE, McLean T, Green R (2003) North-east Victoria SGS National Experiment site: water and nutrient losses from grazing systems on contrasting soil types and levels of inputs. Aust J Exp Agric 43:799–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Roberts TL, Johnston AE (2015) Phosphorus use efficiency and management in agriculture. Resour Conserv Recycl 105:275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rowe H, Withers PJA, Baas P, Chan NI, Doody D, Holiman J, Jacobs B, Li H, MacDonald GK, McDowell R, Sharpley AN, Shen J, Taheri W, Wallenstein M, Weintraub MN (2016) Integrating legacy soil phosphorus into sustainable nutrient management strategies for future food, bioenergy and water security. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 104:393–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sattari SZ, Bouwman AF, Giller KE, van Ittersum MK (2012) Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:6348–6353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schipper LA, Dodd MB, Pronger J, Mudge PL, Upsdell M, Moss RA (2013) Decadal changes in soil carbon and nitrogen under a range of irrigation and phosphorus fertilizer treatments. Soil Sci Soc Am J 77:246–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scott JT, Stewart DPC, Metherell AK (2012) Alteration of pasture root carbon turnover in response to superphosphate and irrigation at Winchmore New Zealand. N Z J Agric Res 55:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Simpson RJ, Oberson A, Culvenor RA, Ryan MH, Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Lynch JP, Ryan PR, Delhaize E, Smith FA, Smith SE, Harvey PR, Richardson AE (2011) Strategies and agronomic interventions to improve the phosphorus-use efficiency of farming systems. Plant Soil 349:89–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Simpson RJ, Richardson AE, Nichols SN, Crush JR (2014) Pasture plants and soil fertility management to improve the efficiency of phosphorus fertiliser use in temperate grassland systems. Crop Pasture Sci 65:556–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Simpson RJ, Stefanski A, Marshall DJ, Moore AD, Richardson AE (2015) Management of soil phosphorus fertility determines the phosphorus budget of a temperate grazing system and is the key to improving phosphorus efficiency. Agric Ecosyst Environ 212:263–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smith LC, Moss RA, Morton JD, Metherell AK, Fraser TJ (2012) Pasture production from a long-term fertiliser trial under irrigation. N Z J Agric Res 55:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Syers JK, Johnston AE, Curtin D (2008) Efficiency of soil and fertilizer phosphorus use—reconciling changing concepts of soil phosphorus behaviour with agronomic information. FAO fertilizer and plant nutrition bulletin 18. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  36. Taylor AR (1981) A method for surface irrigation design based on infiltration using the border strip as an infiltrometer. PhD thesis, Lincoln University, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  37. Tian J, Boitt G, Black A, Wakelin S, Condron LM, Chen L (2017) Accumulation and distribution of phosphorus in the soil profile under fertilized grazed pasture. Agric Ecosyst Environ 239:228–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Van Kauwenbergh SJ (2010) World phosphate rock reserves and resources. International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle ShoalsGoogle Scholar
  39. Weaver DM, Wong MTF (2011) Scope to improve phosphorus (P) management and balance efficiency of crop and pasture soils with contrasting P status and buffering indices. Plant Soil 349:37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Williams PH, Haynes RJ (1992) Balance sheet of phosphorus, sulphur and potassium in a long-term grazed pasture supplied with superphosphate. Fertil Res 31:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Woods R, Hendrikx J, Henderson R, Tait A (2006) Estimating mean flow of New Zealand rivers. J Hydrol (NZ) 45:95–109Google Scholar
  42. Zhu Q, Ozores-Hampton M, Li YC, Morgan KT (2018) Phosphorus application rates affected phosphorus partitioning and use efficiency in tomato production. Agron J 110:2050–2058CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Applied EcologyChinese Academy of SciencesShenyangChina
  2. 2.College of Natural Resources and EnvironmentSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Life SciencesLincoln UniversityLincoln, ChristchurchNew Zealand
  5. 5.Bio-Protection Research CentreLincoln UniversityLincoln, ChristchurchNew Zealand
  6. 6.Department of Forest SystemsScion ResearchChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations