Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 113, Issue 2, pp 141–156 | Cite as

Integrated phosphorus management in maize–chickpea cropping system on alkaline Fluvisol

  • M. S. Venkatesh
  • K. K. HazraEmail author
  • P. K. Ghosh
  • Mohan Singh
Original Article


In tropical agro-ecosystem, crop production is constrained by the reduced availability of soil phosphorus (P) due to strong P fixation. A field experiment was conducted for five cropping seasons on an alkaline Fluvisol to assess the integrated effect of six system-based fertilizer P rate (kg P2O5 ha−1) in maize (M)–chickpea (C) rotation [M0–C0, M0–C40, M30–C0, M30–C40, M60–C0, M60–C40], two manure treatments [no farmyard manure (FYM), FYM at 5 t ha−1], and two phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) treatments [no PSB, PSB seed treatment in chickpea] on soil available-P, soil–plant P dynamics, balance, P use efficiency, and system productivity. Combined application of fertilizer P and FYM had a strong positive impact on soil available-P, soil biochemical properties, P acquisition and crop productivity. Conversely, the effect of PSB was marginal. Treatment M60–C40 + FYM + PSB increased soil available-P by 56% at the end of 5-year rotation; where 53% depletion was noticed in treatment M0–C0 − FYM − PSB (control). Treatments M30–C40 + FYM ± PSB, M60–C0 + FYM ± PSB, and M60–C40 + FYM ± PSB had a positive trend of soil available-P. The order of fertilizer P treatments for P uptake and annual P balance was M60–C40 > M30–C40 > M60–C0 > M0–C40 > M30–C0 > M0–C0. FYM application improved P recovery efficiency by 71%. Soil microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, and soil pH had significant relationship with available-P (p < 0.01). Notably, treatments M30–C0 + FYM + PSB and M60–C40 − FYM − PSB had a similar effect on maize productivity (4.1–4.2 t ha−1). Likewise, treatments M60–C0 + FYM + PSB and M60–C40 − FYM − PSB were comparable for chickpea productivity (p > 0.05). Therefore, integration of manure and fertilizer P is recommended for increasing the productivity and P use efficiency in maize–chickpea rotation in tropical alkaline soil.


Farmyard manure Phosphate solubilizing bacteria Recovery efficiency Soil available-P Apparent P balance Indo-Gangetic plain 



The research work was funded by ICAR–IIPR, Kanpur, India.

Supplementary material

10705_2019_9970_MOESM1_ESM.docx (42 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 42 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crop Production DivisionICAR–Indian Institute of Pulses ResearchKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Agricultural and Food Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  3. 3.NAHEPKrishi Anusandhan Bhawan IINew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Basic Science DivisionICAR–Indian Institute of Pulses ResearchKanpurIndia

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