Nutrient uptake of iron, zinc, magnesium, and copper in transgenic maize (Zea mays) as affected by rotation systems and N application rates
- 125 Downloads
Understanding the interaction of macro- and micronutrients is a prerequisite to targeting nutrient balance in crop production. A 3-year field study was conducted to determine mineral nutrient uptake of maize hybrids with N fertilizer application under different rotation systems. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with rotation [maize-alfalfa (MA), maize-soybean (MS), and continuous maize (MM)] by N rate (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1) as the mainplot and hybrid as the subplot. Two additional treatments (200 and 250 kg N ha−1) were tested in MM. Maize plant total Mg, Zn, and Cu content were in the order: MA > MS > MM. Plant Fe uptake was the lowest in MA and not affected by N input. The increased Cu uptake with increasing N rates indicated the synergism of these two nutrients, whereas dilution effects of N application on stover Zn and Mg concentrations were recorded. Rotation systems and N rates interactively affected nutrient harvest index and internal efficiency of Zn, Mg, Fe, and Cu. Relationships of plant N with Cu and Mg concentrations, and N with Zn, Mg, and Cu content at the V6 stage were established, but they were not necessarily preserved at maturity due to the progressive synergistic and dilution effects. The findings of nutrient uptake of Cu, Zn, Mg and Fe and their relationships with N nutrition in maize with stacked transgenic traits are important for developing best management practices to achieve concurrent improvements in nutrient use efficiency and crop productivity.
KeywordsNutrient interaction Micronutrients Maize Crop rotation
This study was financially supported in part, by the Sustainable Science and Technology Advancement Project (J-001409) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). We wish to thank Doug Balchin (retired), Lynne Evenson, Scott Patterson (retired), and Ulrica McKim of AAFC at the Ottawa Research and Development Centre (ORDC), for their excellent technical assistance in executing the experiment. AAFC-ORDC contribution No. 18-014.
- Blaylock A (2008) Managing secondary nutrients and micronutrients. In: Stewart WM, Gordon WB (eds) Fertilizing for irrigated corn—guide to best management practices. Published by the International Plant Nutrition Institute. http://www.ipni.net/ipniweb/portal.nsf/0/1510bfb2a4649f7c8525756f005899e9/$FILE/Irrigated_%20Corn.pdf. Accessed on 22 Nov 2017
- Fageria NK (2009) The use of nutrients in crop plants. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Gillespie AW, Diochon A, Ma BL, Morrison MJ, Kellman L, Walley FL, Regier TZ, Chevrier D, Dynes JJ, Gregorich EG (2014) Nitrogen input quality changes the biochemical composition of soil organic matter stabilized in the fine fraction: a long-term study. Biogeochemistry 117:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias A (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, p 331Google Scholar
- Karlen DL, Flannery RL, Sadler EJ (1988) Aerial accumulation and partitioning of nutrients by corn. Agron J 80:232–242. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1988.00021962008000020018x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Losak T, Hlusek J, Martinec J, Jandak J, Szostkova M, Filipcik R, Manasek J, Prokes K, Peterka J, Varga L, Ducsay L, Orosz F, Martensson A (2011) Nitrogen fertilization does not affect micronutrient uptake in grain maize (Zea mays L.). Acta Agric Scand Sect B 61:543–550Google Scholar
- Ma BL, Wu W (2016) Crop productivity and environment impact in a maize-legume rotation system: a review. In: Ma BL (ed) Crop rotations: farming practices, monitoring and environmental benefits. Nova Science Publisher Inc, New York, pp 1–33Google Scholar
- Rochester IJ (2006) Effects of genotype, edaphic, environmental conditions, and agronomic practices on CRY1Ac protein expression in transgenic cotton. J Cotton Sci 10:252–262Google Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc. (2010) SAS/STAT software. Release 9.2. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
- Subedi KD, Ma BL (2009) Corn crop production: growth, fertilization and yield. In: Danforth AT (ed) Corn crop production: growth, fertilization and yield. Series: agriculture issues and policies. Nova Science Publisher, Inc., New York, pp 1–84. ISBN 978-1-60741-955-6Google Scholar