Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fatigue crack propagation modes: plastic deformation mode and damage accumulation mode

  • 19 Accesses


To define the fatigue crack propagation mode for the prediction and classification of the experimental results based on its evolution mechanism, successive mesoscopic observations of a fatigue process under pure cyclic mode II loading are performed. Thus, damage accumulation, which is considered to be a vacancy accumulation, is found to be a mechanism. The phenomena occur not at the crack tip but ahead of it. Thus, “plastic deformation mode” and “damage accumulation mode” are the terms proposed to represent the fatigue crack propagation modes instead of “tensile mode” and “shear mode,” respectively. Moreover, as a method to classify both the fatigue crack propagation modes using the experimental results, it is proposed to identify the plastic strain in the wake of the crack tip.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. Ballarini R, Plesha ME (1987) The effects of crack surface friction and roughness on crack tip stress-fields. Int J Fract 34:195–207.

  2. Bold PE, Brown MW, Allen RJ (1992) A review of fatigue crack growth in steels under mixed Mode I and II loading. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 15:965–977.

  3. Budiansky B, Hutchinson JW (1978) Analysis of closure in fatigue crack growth. J Appl Mech 45:267–276

  4. Doquet V, Bertolino G (2008a) Local approach to fatigue cracks bifurcation. Int J Fatigue 30:942–950.

  5. Doquet V, Bertolino G (2008b) A material and environment-dependent criterion for the prediction of fatigue crack paths in metallic structures. Eng Fract Mech 75:3399–3412.

  6. Elber W (1970) Fatigue crack closure under cyclic tension. Eng Fract Mech 2:37–45.

  7. Forsyth PJE (1962) A two stage process of fatigue crack growth. Crack Propag Symp Cranfield 1961:76–94

  8. Gates N, Fatemi A (2016) Friction and roughness induced closure effects on shear-mode crack growth and branching mechanisms. Int J Fatigue 92:442–458.

  9. Ghonem H, Provan JW (1980) Micromechanics theory of fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Eng Fract Mech 13:963–977.

  10. Hamada S, Suemasu T, Fukudome S, Koyama M, Ueda M, Noguchi H (2018) Roughness-induced stress shielding effect in fatigue crack propagation under Mode II loading. Int J Fatigue 116:245–256.

  11. Laird C (1967) The influence of metallurgical structure on the mechanisms of fatigue crack propagation. In: ASTM Special technical publication 415 (STP 415): Fatigue Crack Propagation, vol 415. American Society for Testing and Materials, pp 131–180.

  12. Laird C, Smith GC (1962) Crack propagation in high stress fatigue. Philos Mag 7:847–857.

  13. Man J, Petrenec M, Obrtlík K, Polák J (2004) AFM and TEM study of cyclic slip localization in fatigued ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel. Acta Mater 52:5551–5561.

  14. Melin S (1986) When does a crack grow under Mode II conditions? Int J Fract 30:103–114.

  15. Miller KJ, Ibrahim MFE (1981) Damage accumulation during initiation and short crack growth regimes. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 4:263–277.

  16. Miner MA (1945) Cumulative damage in fatigue. J Appl Mech 12:A159–A164

  17. Mughrabi H (1983) Dislocation wall and cell structures and long-range internal stresses in deformed metal crystals. Acta Metall 31:1367–1379.

  18. Murakami Y, Hamada S (1997) A new method for the measurement of Mode II fatigue threshold stress intensity factor range \(\Delta K_{\uptau {\rm th}}\). Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 20:863–870.

  19. Neumann P (1969) Coarse slip model of fatigue. Acta Metall 17:1219–1225.

  20. Neumann P (1974) New experiments concerning the slip processes at propagating fatigue cracks–I. Acta Metall 22:1155–1165.

  21. Nisitani H, Takao K-I (1974) Behavior of a tip of non-propagating fatigue crack during one stress cycle. Eng Fract Mech 6:253–260.

  22. Otsuka A, Mori K, Miyata T (1975) The condition of fatigue crack growth in mixed mode condition. Eng Fract Mech 7:429–432, IN415-IN418,433-439.

  23. Pinna C, Doquet V (1999) The preferred fatigue crack propagation mode in a M250 maraging steel loaded in shear. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 22:173–183.

  24. Pokluda J, Pippan R, Vojtek T, Hohenwarter A (2014) Near-threshold behaviour of shear-mode fatigue cracks in metallic materials. Fatig Fract Eng Mater Struct 37:232–254.

  25. Polák J, Man J (2016) Experimental evidence and physical models of fatigue crack initiation. Int J Fatigue 91:294–303.

  26. Ritchie RO (1988) Mechanisms of fatigue crack propagation in metals, ceramics and composites: role of crack tip shielding. Mater Sci Eng A 103:15–28.

  27. Ritchie RO (1999) Mechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in ductile and brittle solids. Int J Fract 100:55–83.

  28. Ritchie RO (2011) The conflicts between strength and toughness. Nat Mater 10:817–822.

  29. Ritchie RO, Gilbert CJ, McNaney JM (2000) Mechanics and mechanisms of fatigue damage and crack growth in advanced materials. Int J Solids Struct 37:311–329.

  30. Rosenfield AR (1980) A fracture mechanics approach to wear. Wear 61:125–132.

  31. Sangid MD (2013) The physics of fatigue crack initiation. Int J Fatigue 57:58–72.

  32. Seidametova G, Vogt JB, Proriol Serre I (2018) The early stage of fatigue crack initiation in a 12%Cr martensitic steel. Int J Fatigue 106:38–48.

  33. Stanzl-Tschegg SE (2017) Fracture mechanical characterization of the initiation and growth of interior fatigue cracks. Fatig Fract Eng Mater Struct 40:1741–1751.

  34. Suresh S, Ritchie RO (1982) A geometric model for fatigue crack closure induced by fracture surface roughness. Metall Trans A 13A:1627–1631.

  35. Suresh S, Zamiski GF, Ritchie RO (1981) Oxide-induced crack closure: an explanation for near-threshold corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior. Metall Trans A 12A:1435–1443

  36. Suzuki H, McEvily AJ (1979) Microstructural effects on fatigue crack growth in a low carbon steel. MTA 10:475–481.

  37. Tanaka K (2003) 4.04 - fatigue crack propagation. In: Ritchie RO, Karihaloo B (eds) Comprehensive structural integrity. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 95–127.

  38. Tanaka K, Mura T (1981) A dislocation model for fatigue crack initiation. J Appl Mech 48:97–103.

  39. Tanaka K, Nakai Y, Yamashita M (1981) Fatigue growth threshold of small cracks. Int J Fract 17:519–533.

  40. Zhai T-G, Lin S, Xiao J-M (1990) Influence of non-geometric effect of PSB on crack initiation in aluminium single crystal. Acta Metall et Mater 38:1687–1692.

  41. Zhai T, Martin JW, Briggs GAD (1995) Fatigue damage in aluminum single crystals–I. On the surface containing the slip burgers vector. Acta Metall et Mater 43:3813–3825.

Download references


The authors would like to show their greatest appreciation to Mr. S. Fukudome for his help during the experiments and observations. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H06365.

Author information

Correspondence to Shigeru Hamada.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hamada, S., Zhang, K., Koyama, M. et al. Fatigue crack propagation modes: plastic deformation mode and damage accumulation mode. Int J Fract (2020).

Download citation


  • Mode II loading
  • Fatigue crack propagation
  • Tensile-mode, damage
  • Texture
  • Mechanics