# 3D model of transversal fracture propagation from a cavity caused by Herschel–Bulkley fluid injection

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## Abstract

The paper presents an extension of authors’ previous model for a 3D hydraulic fracture with Newtonian fluid, which aims to account for the Herschel–Bulkley fluid rheology and to study the associated effects. This fluid rheology model is the most suitable for description of modern complex fracturing fluids, in particular, for description of foamed fluids that have been successfully utilized recently as fracturing fluids in tight and ultra-tight unconventional formations with high clay contents. Another advantage of using Herschel–Bulkley rheological law in the hydraulic fracture model consists in its generality as its particular cases allow describing the behavior of the majority of non-Newtonian fluids employed in hydraulic fracturing. Except the Herschel–Bulkley fluid flow model the considered model of hydraulic fracturing includes the model of the rock stress state. It is based on the elastic equilibrium equations that are solved by the dual boundary element method. Also the hydraulic fracturing model contains the new mixed mode propagation criterion, which states that the fracture should propagate in the direction in which mode \({{\mathrm{\mathrm {II}}}}\) and mode \({{\mathrm{\mathrm {III}}}}\) stress intensity factors both vanish. Since it is not possible to make both modes zero simultaneously the criterion proposes a functional that depends on both modes and is minimized along the fracture front in order to obtain the direction of propagation. Solution for Herschel–Bulkley fluid flow in a channel is presented in detail, and the numerical algorithm is described. The developed model has been verified against some reference solutions and sensitivity of fracture geometry to rheological fluid parameters has been studied to some extent.

## Keywords

3D model of hydraulic fracture propagation Herschel–Bulkley fluid flow in fracture Dual boundary element method 3D mixed mode crack front deflection criterion## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support of this research by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant No. 17-71-20139).

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