Apriorics and Structuralism

  • Yakir Shoshani
  • Asher YahalomEmail author


In this paper we suggest the use of ontological structures (OSs) as an appropriate tool for describing the foundations of reality. Every vertex of this structure, representing a fundamental entity (FE) in the universe, is completely and solely characterized by its connections to the other vertices in the structure. The edges of this structure are binary compounds of the FEs, and are identified with the elementary particles. The combinations including more than 2 connected vertices correspond to composite particles. The principles according to which the OSs are designed (Shoshani, in: Tempsky (ed) Philosophy of the natural sciences, VHP Tempsky, Vienna, 1989; Shoshani in Phys Essays 4(4):566–576, 1991; Shoshani in Phys Essays 11(4):512–520, 1998) are discussed in Sect. 2, and the simplest OSs having the minimal number of vertices, and thus represent the simplest universe, are given in Sect. 3. This section also describes an OS that includes an infinite number of vertices that might represent the space–time points. This structure imparts a new meaning to space–time, detached from their intuitive grasp (Shoshani in Phys Essays 23(2):285–292, 2010). Section 4 is devoted to show how to ascribe intrinsic properties to the fundamental entities by using their inter-connections in the OS. The predictive power and explanatory capacity of this theory, named Apriorics (Shoshani in Phys Essays 27(1):126–130, 2014) are briefly described in Sects. 3 and 4.


Apriorics Elementary particles Space time structure 



  1. Dipert, R. R. (1997). The mathematical structure of the world: The world as graph. The Journal of Philosophy, 94(7), 329–358.Google Scholar
  2. French, S. (2001). Getting out of a hole: Identity, individuality and quantum theory. Philpsophica, 67, 11–29.Google Scholar
  3. French, S., & Ladyman, J. (2011). Chapter 2: In defense of ontic structural realism. In P. Bokulich & A. Bokulich (Eds.), Scientific structures. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Hume, D. (2012). A treatise of human nature. Mineola, NY: Dover Philosophical Classics.Google Scholar
  5. Kantorovich, A. (2009). Ontic structuralism and the symmetries of particle physics. Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 40(1), 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ladyman, J. (2007). Scientific structuralism: On the identity and diversity of objects in a structure. The Aristotelian Society Supplementary, 81(1), 23–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Leitgeb, H., & Ladyman, J. (2008). Criteria of identity and structuralist ontology. Philosophia Mathematica, 16(3), 388–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Psillos, S. (2001). Is structural realism possible? Philosophy of Science Supplement, 68(3), S13–S24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Shackel, N. (2011). The world as a graph: Defending metaphysical graphical structuralism. Analysis, 71(1), 10–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shoshani, Y. (1989). Introduction to formal ontology. In V. H. P. Tempsky (Ed.), Philosophy of the natural sciences (pp. 202–209). Vienna: VHP Tempsky.Google Scholar
  11. Shoshani, Y. (1991). Philosophical origin of quarks. Physics Essays, 4(4), 566–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Shoshani, Y. (1998). Apriorics and the proliferation of elementary particles in non-interacting universes. Physics Essays, 11(4), 512–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Shoshani, Y. (2010). Apriorics and a new meaning of space and time. Physics Essays, 23(2), 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shoshani, Y. (2014). The emergence and potential of apriorics. Physics Essays, 27(1), 126–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shoshani, Y. (2016). Apriorics: A model of elementary particles and beyond. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. Trudeau, R. J. (1993). Introduction to graph theory. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Worrall, J. (1989). Structural realism: The best of both worlds? Dialectica, 43(1–2), 99–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Young, J. (1991). Truth, coherence and the Vienna circle. Synthese, 86, 467–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shenkar College of EngineeringRamat GanIsrael
  2. 2.Ariel UniversityArielIsrael

Personalised recommendations