Adequate supply of dietary taurine stimulates expression of molecular markers of growth and protein turnover in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer)
A trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary taurine (Tau) supply on the plasma amino acid composition and hepatic expression of several genes in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) after feeding. Triplicate tanks of fish (average weight, 89.3 g) were fed diets containing either a deficient (1 g kg−1), adequate (8 g kg−1) or excessive (19 g kg−1) level of dietary Tau. Liver tissues collected before feeding, and at 2- and 4-h post-feeding, were analysed for expression of genes involved in pathways of sulphur amino acid turnover, Tau biosynthesis and transport, target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling, the somatotropic axis and protein turnover. The treatment had no significant effect on the profiles of any amino acid in plasma collected over time after feeding, other than Tau and glycine. The expression profile of cystine and Tau synthetic genes suggested an effect of Tau excess on the metabolism of cystine. Markers of two pathways of Tau biosynthesis appear to be active in this species, providing proof that this species possesses the ability to synthesise Tau from SAA precursors. A marker for the regulation of Tau transport and homeostasis was shown to be directly regulated by Tau availability, whilst a link between adequate supply of Tau and TOR pathway-mediated growth stimulation was also apparent. An observed depression in expression of genes of the somatotropic axis, coupled with upregulation of the proteolytic and TOR-suppressing genes, in response to excessive Tau supply in the diet, signalled that excessive Tau may not be conducive to optimal growth in this species.
KeywordsBarramundi Lates calcarifer Taurine Post-prandial Protein turnover
The authors wish to acknowledge the staff of the CSIRO Bribie Island Aquaculture Centre (BIRC): Mr. Simon Irvin, Ms. Natalie Habilay, Mr. Isaak Kadel and Mr. Joel Slinger for their assistance in the collection of samples and Mr. David Blyth in the preparation of the diets.
This research did not receive a specific grant but was funded by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and The Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation. David Poppi received support through an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- de Moura LB, Diógenes AF, Campelo DAV, de Almeida FLA, Pousão-Ferreira PM, Furuya WM, Peres H, Oliva-Teles A (2019) Nutrient digestibility, digestive enzymes activity, bile drainage alterations and plasma metabolites of meagre (Argyrosomus regius) feed high plant protein diets supplemented with taurine and methionine. Aquaculture 511:734231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Glencross B, Wade N, Morton K (2013) Lates calcarifer nutrition and feeding practices. In: Jerry DR (ed) Biology and culture of Asian seabass Lates Calcarifer. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 178–228Google Scholar
- Gómez-Requeni P, Mingarro M, Kirchner S, Calduch-Giner J, Médale F, Corraze G, Panserat S, Martin S, Houlihan D, Kaushik S (2003) Effects of dietary amino acid profile on growth performance, key metabolic enzymes and somatotropic axis responsiveness of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 220:749–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Green M, Sambrook J (2012) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Hook SE, Kroon FJ, Metcalfe S, Greenfield PA, Moncuquet P, McGrath A, Smith R, Warne MSJ, Turner RD, McKeown A (2017) Global transcriptomic profiling in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) from rivers impacted by differing agricultural land uses. Environ Toxicol Chem 36:103–112PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Jia P, Xue M, Zhu X, Liu H-Y, Wu X-F, Wang J, Zheng Y-HA, Xu M (2013) Effects of dietary methionine levels on the growth performance of juvenile gibel carp (Caeassius auratus gibelio). Acta Hydrobiol Sin 37:217–226Google Scholar
- Liang H, Ren M, Habte-Tsion HM, Ge X, Xie J, Mi H, Xi B, Miao L, Liu B, Zhou Q, Fang W (2016) Dietary arginine affects growth performance, plasma amino acid contents and gene expressions of the TOR signaling pathway in juvenile blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. Aquaculture 461:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Poppi DA, Moore SS, Wade NM, Glencross BD (2019) Postprandial plasma free amino acid profile and hepatic gene expression in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is more responsive to feed consumption than to dietary methionine inclusion. Aquaculture 501:345–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.11.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ripps H, Shen W (2011) Review: Taurine: a “very essential” amino acid. Mol Vis 18:2673–2686Google Scholar
- Rolland M, Dalsgaard J, Holm J, Gómez-Requeni P, Skov PV (2015) Dietary methionine level affects growth performance and hepatic gene expression of GH–IGF system and protein turnover regulators in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant protein-based diets. Comp Biochem Physiol B: Biochem Mol Biol 181:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Takagi S, Murata H, Goto T, Hatate H, Endo M, Yamashita H, Miyatake H, Ukawa M (2010) Necessity of dietary taurine supplementation for preventing green liver symptom and improving growth performance in yearling red sea bream Pagrus major fed nonfishmeal diets based on soy protein concentrate. Fish Sci 76:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Watson AM, Barrows FT, Allen R (2015) The importance of taurine and n-3 fatty acids in cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Bull Fish Res Agen 40:51–59Google Scholar