Liver proteome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) following treatment with enrofloxacin

  • Rongrong Ma
  • Wenhong Fang
  • Zhongying Yang
  • Kun HuEmail author


Enrofloxacin is widely used for the prevention and control of bacterial diseases in aquaculture. The liver is crucial for enrofloxacin metabolism, but enrofloxacin can induce liver damage. Herein, we explored proteomic changes in the liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) following treatment with enrofloxacin using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology. All experiments included two biological replicates and blank controls. Among the 3082 proteins identified, 103 were differentially abundant, comprising 49 up- and 54 downregulated proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation identified macromolecular complex (63.60%), intracellular non-membrane-bound organelle (51.50%), and non-membrane-bound organelle (51.50%) as the most enriched cellular component terms. Structural molecule activity (26.80%), structural constituent of ribosome (17.90%), and calcium ion binding (16.10%) were the top three molecular function terms. Organic substance biosynthetic process (37.80%), biosynthetic process (37.80%), and protein metabolic process (37.80%) were the top three biological process terms. The Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found 17 enriched KEGG pathways, with protein digestion and absorption, extracellular matrix (ECM)–receptor interactions, and ribosome and focal adhesion the most significant (p < 0.001). Analysis of the most enriched pathways revealed that chymotrypsin-like precursor, pancreatic elastase precursor, Na+/K+ transporting ATPase, collagen, and dermatopontin were upregulated, while ribosomal proteins, alpha-actinin, and myosin light chain were downregulated. These findings suggest that enrofloxacin affects liver function and has a risk of inducing an inflammatory response in extrahepatic organs.


Proteome Grass carp Liver Enrofloxacin Hepatotoxicity 


Funding information

This study was supported financially by the Shanghai Agriculture Applied Technology Development Program, China (Grant No. 2018-02-08-00-07-F01549); the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (Grant No. 201203085); Ningbo University Research Start-Up Fund for excellent PhD (013-421807990); and the K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Experimental procedures on animals were carried out in accordance with the Ningbo University Animal Health Guidelines for Animal Care and Experimentation and supervised by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Ningbo University.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10695_2019_690_MOESM1_ESM.docx (45 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 44 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rongrong Ma
    • 1
  • Wenhong Fang
    • 2
  • Zhongying Yang
    • 3
  • Kun Hu
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Marine SciencesNingbo UniversityNingboPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of East China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture, East China Sea Fisheries Research InstituteChinese Academy of Fishery SciencesShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Nanchang Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanchangChina
  4. 4.College of Aquatic and LifeShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.College of Fisheries and Life ScienceShanghai Ocean UniversityLingang New CityPeople’s Republic of China

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