Coping with exposure to hypoxia: modifications in stress parameters in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

  • Bruno Olivetti de MattosEmail author
  • José Fernando López-Olmeda
  • Bartira Guerra-Santos
  • Cristóbal Espinosa Ruiz
  • José María García-Beltrán
  • Maria Ángeles-Esteban
  • Francisco Javier Sánchez-Vázquez
  • Rodrigo Fortes-SilvaEmail author


This study aimed to investigate the stress response of Sparus aurata specimens fed with nutraceutical aquafeed brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). For that purpose, 96 (169.0 ± 2.8 g) animals were distributed randomly in 12 tanks (8 fish per tank, 4 replicates) and divided in 3 groups (D1, casein/gelatin, control; D2, brewer’s yeast; D3, spirulina) and fed for 30 days. At the end of this period, fish from two replicates of each experimental diet were submitted to air exposure for 60 s while the fish from the other two replicates were maintained undisturbed (control). Afterwards, samples of blood, skin mucus, and head kidney were collected. The results revealed that after air exposure, cortisol, and glucose levels increased in the groups fed D1 (18.5 ± 2.6 mg/mL; 7.3 ± 0.6 mmol/L, respectively) and D2 (20.0 ± 6.2 mg/mL; 7.7 ± 0.6 mmol/L), but glucose not increased in fish fed D3 (13.7 ± 2.6 mg/mL; 5.5 ± 0.3 mmol/L). Lactate levels increased in all stressed groups, but in D1, its levels were significantly higher. After stress procedure, immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels in mucus increased only in fish fed D3 (0.1901 ± 0.0126 U/mL). Furthermore, there was a reduction in the expression of some genes involved in stress response (coxIV, prdx3, csfl-r, ucp1, and sod in fish fed D2 and D3). csf1 decreased only in stressed fish fed D2. However, cat increased in fish fed with D3. In summary, these findings points to the beneficial effects of spirulina and brewer’s yeast to improve stress resistance in aquaculture practices of gilthead seabream.


Antioxidant status Functional protein Nutraceutical aquafeed Oxidative damage 



The authors wish to thank Culmarex fish farm (San Pedro del Pinatar, Murcia, Spain), for kindly providing the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), the Estrella de Levante Brewery for kindly providing the brewer’s yeast, the Algalimento Sociedad Limitada for kindly providing the Spirulina used in the experiments, and the Spanish Ministry of Defense for providing their facilities at the Spanish Naval Base of Algameca (ENA, Cartagena, Spain), for the development of the project.

Funding information

The present research was partially funded by project PVE-401416/2014-3 (Pesquisador Visitante Especial) granted to Rodrigo Fortes-Silva by Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). R. Fortes-Silva was funded through a research fellowship from CNPq/Brazil (Research Productivity-PQ, No. 305734/2016-4). Part of this research was supported by research grants (MINECO, AGL2017-82582-C3-3 and AGL2016-81808-REDT, and SENECA Chronohealth 19899/GERM/15) awarded to F.J. Sánchez-Vázquez and SENECA (grant number 19883/GERM/15, awarded to M.A. Esteban). José Fernando López-Olmeda had a research contract granted by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO, Juan de la Cierva Program). Bruno Olivetti de Mattos had a PhD student – fellowship at University of Murcia/Spain, financed by Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) (no. 99999.003219/2015-01).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Olivetti de Mattos
    • 1
    Email author
  • José Fernando López-Olmeda
    • 2
  • Bartira Guerra-Santos
    • 3
  • Cristóbal Espinosa Ruiz
    • 4
  • José María García-Beltrán
    • 4
  • Maria Ángeles-Esteban
    • 4
  • Francisco Javier Sánchez-Vázquez
    • 2
  • Rodrigo Fortes-Silva
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Aquatic Organisms Nutrition, Postgraduate Program in AquacultureUniversity Nilton LinsManausBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”University of MurciaMurciaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Campus SalvadorFederal University of BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”University of MurciaMurciaSpain
  5. 5.Laboratory of Fish Nutrition and Feeding Behavior, Faculty of Fishing Engineering, Center of Agricultural Science, Environmental and BiologicalUniversity of BahiaCruz das AlmasBrazil

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