Lipid digestion capacity in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) from first feeding to commercial size
To characterise the progression of lipid digestion capacity in gilthead seabream across life cycle, the activities of bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were determined in the digestive tracts of cultured gilthead seabream from first feeding to marketable size (49 μg to 300 g). Four trials were undertaken with gilthead seabream of different ages, fed on diets with fishmeal and fish oil as the main dietary protein and lipid sources and 21–25% lipid contents. Larvae of 4 days after hatching (dah) to 9 dah were fed rotifers with different fatty acid profiles: control (2.8% eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; 1.6% docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; 5.4% n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3 LC-PUFAs; and 0.2% arachidonic acid, ARA), low EPA (1.38% EPA, 1.6% DHA, 3.9% n-3 LC-PUFA and 0.4% ARA) or low LC-PUFA (0.7% EPA, 1.0% DHA, 1.8% n-3 LC-PUFA and 0.0% ARA) (% dry weight). Larvae fed the low-LC-PUFA diet showed a significantly lower growth at 10 dah. BAL activities were significantly higher in larvae fed the control diet than in those fed low-EPA and low-LC-PUFA diets at 9 dah. BAL activity increased with age across life cycle (49 μg to 300 g). PLA2 activity could not be detected in larvae but increased with age in juvenile and adult gilthead seabream (86 g to 295 g), similar to BAL. Results suggested a correspondence between the stimulation of lipid digestion capacity and growth performance in gilthead seabream by dietary essential fatty acids, particularly by EPA when DHA requirements are met in the diet especially in the very early stages of life cycle, when the progression of BAL and PLA2 activities could be used as indicators of the nutritional status of cultured gilthead seabream larvae. Finally, regarded that PLA2 activity was not detected in 4-dah to 44-dah gilthead seabream larvae, future works are suggested to assess the dietary effect on PLA2 activity and the PLA2 activity pattern along the larval stage of this species using a more sensitive detection method.
KeywordsSeabream Digestive capacity Bile salt-activated lipase Phospholipase A2 EPA DHA
The authors of the present work would like to acknowledge all members of GIA (Grupo de Investigación en Acuicultura) IU-Ecoaqua from ULPGC for their technical support and provision and management of gilthead seabream broodstock and spawning.
Marisol Izquierdo conceived of and designed the experiments. Leire Arantzamendi analysed the experimental results and wrote the paper. Javier Roo conducted the rotifer culture and their enrichment with lipid emulsions and baker’s yeast. Carmen Maria Hernández-Cruz and Leire Arantzamendi conducted the larval rearing and measurements of growth parameters. Leire Arantzamendi conducted the dissection of larvae and, together with Marisol Izquierdo, conducted the enzymatic assays. Hipólito Fernández-Palacios conducted the management of broodstock and the spawning. Leire Arantzamendi conducted the rearing of juvenile and adult gilthead seabream. This paper is contribution nº 883 from AZTI (Marine research).
Compliance with ethical standards
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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