A multi-biomarker approach to lambda-cyhalothrin effects on the freshwater teleost matrinxa Brycon amazonicus: single-pulse exposure and recovery
Effects of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (LCH) were investigated in matrinxa Brycon amazonicus, a non-target freshwater teleost. The fish were submitted to a single-pulse exposure (10% of LC50; 96 h, 0.65 μg L−1), followed by 7 days of recovery in clean water. Hematologic parameters indicated impairments in oxygen transport, which were not recovered. Plasma [Na+], [Cl−], and protein were diminished, and only [Na+] remained low after recovery. Gill Na+/K+ATPase activity was increased and recovered to basal values. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was not responsive to LCH. Liver ascorbic acid concentration was not altered, and reduced glutathione levels remained augmented even after recovery. LCH inhibited hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, while glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activities were steady. After recovery, SOD remained low, and GPx was augmented. Liver depicted lipid peroxidation, which was not observed after recovery. Hepatic morphology was affected by LCH and was not completely recovered. These responses, combined with the persistence of changes even after recovery span, clearly show the feasibility of these biomarkers in evaluating LCH toxic potential to non-target organisms, highlighting the importance of pyrethroids’ responsible use.
KeywordsPyrethroid Freshwater pollution Oxidative stress Hepatotoxicity Osmoregulation Histopathology
The authors are thankful to the technician Mr. da Silva ADA; to all colleagues of the Laboratory of Adaptive Biochemistry for the logistical support; to Polettini Fish Farm for providing the fish; and to DVA Agro do Brasil for kindly granting LCH (Trinca Caps®). We also thank two anonymous reviewers, for their considerations substantially improved the manuscript.
The present research was supported by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, proc. no 2010/17007-0), which also provided a PhD scholarship to Venturini FP.
Compliance with ethical standards
All experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Research of the Federal University of Sao Carlos, under the license number CEUA 056/2011.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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