Involvement of HPI-axis in anesthesia with Lippia alba essential oil citral and linalool chemotypes: gene expression in the secondary responses in silver catfish
In teleost fish, stress initiates a hormone cascade along the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis to provoke several physiological reactions in order to maintain homeostasis. In aquaculture, a number of factors induce stress in fish, such as handling and transport, and in order to reduce the consequences of this, the use of anesthetics has been an interesting alternative. Essential oil (EO) of Lippia alba is considered to be a good anesthetic; however, its distinct chemotypes have different side effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate, in detail, the expression of genes involved with the HPI axis and the effects of anesthesia with the EOs of two chemotypes of L. alba (citral EO-C and linalool EO-L) on this expression in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Anesthesia with the EO-C is stressful for silver catfish because there was an upregulation of the genes directly related to stress: slc6a2, crh, hsd20b, hspa12a, and hsp90. In this study, it was also possible to observe the importance of the hsd11b2 gene in the response to stress by handling. The use of EO-C as anesthetics for fish is not recommended, but, the use of OE-L is indicated for silver catfish as it does not cause major changes in the HPI axis.
KeywordsFish Stress Anesthesia Natural products mRNA
Authors are grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico (CNPq), Comissão de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), and INCT-ADAPTA 2 (CNPq).
- Baldissera MD, Souza CF, Grando TH, Sagrillo MR, De Brum GF, Nascimento K, Peres DS, Maciel MF, Silveira SO, Da Luz SCA, Doleski PH, Leal DBR, da Silva AS, Monteiro SG (2016) Memory deficit, toxic effects and activity of Na+, K+-ATPase and NTPDase in brain of Wistar rats submitted to orally treatment with alpha-terpinene. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 46:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Barton BA, Morgan JD, Vijayan MM (2002) Indicators of environmental stress in fish. In: Adams SM (ed) Biological indicators of aquatic ecosystem stress. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, USA, pp 111–148Google Scholar
- Colt J (2001). List of spreadsheets prepared as a complement. In: Wedemeyer, G.A. (Ed.), Fish hatchery management, second ed. American Fisheries SocietyGoogle Scholar
- Fink AL (1998) The Hsp 70 reaction cycle and its role in protein folding. In: Fink AL, Goto Y (eds) Molecular chaperones in the life cycle of proteins. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 123–150Google Scholar
- Jiang JQ, Wang DS, Senthilkumaran B, Kobayashi T, Kobayashi HK, Yamaguchi A, Ge W, Young G, Nagaham Y (2003) Isolation, characterization and expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 cDNAs from the testes of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J Mol Endocrinol 31:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parodi TV, Cunha MA, Becker AG, Zeppenfeld CC, Martins DI, Koakoski G, Barcellos LG, Heinzmann BM, Baldisserotto B (2013) Anesthetic activity of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla and effectiveness in reducing stress during transport of albino and gray strains of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Fish Physiol Biochem 40:323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pratt WB, Toft DO (1997) Steroid receptor interactions with heat shock protein and immunophilin chaperones. Endocr Rev 18:306–360Google Scholar
- Saccol EMH, Jerez-Cepa I, Ourique GM, Pês TS, Gressler LT, Mourão RHV, Martínez-Rodríguez G, Mancera JM, Baldisserotto B, Pavanato MA, Martos-Sitcha JA (2018) Myrcia sylvatica essential oil mitigates molecular, biochemical and physiological alterations in Rhamdia quelen under different stress events associated to transport. Res Vet Sci 117:150–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Souza CF, Baldissera MD, Bianchini AE, da Silva EG, Mourão RHV, da Silva LVF, Schmidt D, Heinzmann BM, Baldisserotto B (2018) Citral and linalool chemotypes of Lippia alba essential oil as anesthetics for fish: a detailed physiological analysis of side effects during anesthetic recovery in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Fish Physiol Biochem 44:21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Takahashi A, Kawauchi H (2006) Diverse structures and functions of melanocortin, endorphin and melanin-concentrating hormone in fish. In: Zaccone G, Reinecke M, Kapoor BG (eds) Fish endocrinology. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 325–392Google Scholar
- Thomas P (1990) Molecular and biochemical responses of fish to stressors and their potential use in environmental monitoring. Am Fish Soc Symp 8:9–28Google Scholar