Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 453–479 | Cite as

The pointing system of the Herschel space observatory

Description, Calibration, Performance and improvements
  • Miguel Sánchez-Portal
  • Anthony Marston
  • Bruno Altieri
  • Hervé Aussel
  • Helmut Feuchtgruber
  • Ulrich Klaas
  • Hendrik Linz
  • Dieter Lutz
  • Bruno Merín
  • Thomas Müller
  • Markus Nielbock
  • Marc Oort
  • Göran Pilbratt
  • Micha Schmidt
  • Craig Stephenson
  • Mark Tuttlebee
  • The Herschel Pointing Working Group
Original Article

Abstract

We present the activities carried out to calibrate and characterise the performance of the elements of attitude control and measurement on board the Herschel spacecraft. The main calibration parameters and the evolution of the indicators of the pointing performance are described, from the initial values derived from the observations carried out in the performance verification phase to those attained in the last year and half of mission, an absolute pointing error around or even below 1 arcsec, a spatial relative pointing error of some 1 arcsec and a pointing stability below 0.2 arsec. The actions carried out at the ground segment to improve the spacecraft pointing measurements are outlined. On-going and future developments towards a final refinement of the Herschel astrometry are also summarised. A brief description of the different components of the attitude control and measurement system (both in the space and in the ground segments) is also given for reference. We stress the importance of the cooperation between the different actors (scientists, flight dynamics and systems engineers, attitude control and measurement hardware designers, star-tracker manufacturers, etc.) to attain the final level of performance.

Keywords

Herschel space observatory Spacecraft Pointing Alignment Calibration Performance 

References

  1. 1.
    Herschel/Planck ACMS Users’ Manual, H-P-4-DS-MA-001 (December 2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ASTR for Herschel/Planck User Manual, H-P-4-GAF-MA-0001, rev. 7 (October 2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aussel, H.: Towards an accurate reconstruction of the Herschel pointing. Technical Report SAp-PACS-HA-0729-11, issue 1.0, CEA Saclay (November 2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aussel, H.: PACS pointing jitter: the GYR view. Technical Report SAp-PACS-HA-0729-11, issue 1.0. CEA Saclay ((November 2011))Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aussel, H.: A first look into the STR catalog, CEA Saclay (27 July 2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berrighi, G., Lorenzini, S.: Key Parameters for Herschel STR Catalogue Generation, Technical Note H-P-GAF-TN-0010, rev. 0 (4 February 2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Grauuw, Th, et al.: The herschel-heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI). A&A 518, L6 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dungate, D.G.: Pointing Error Handbook, E S A, ESA-NCR-502 (Vol. 1), issue 1 (19 February1993)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elfving, A., Rasmussen, I.: Herschel pointing accuracy and calibration procedures, SCI-PT-19552, rev. 1.3 (5 December 2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Feuchtgruber, H.: Herschel Guide stars – Assessment of Quality, PICC-ME-TN-040, rev. 1.0 (8 December 2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feuchtgruber, H., Herschel, STR-A CCD: Sub-Pixel Structure, PICC-ME-TN-041, rev. 2.0 (26 March 2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Feuchtgruber, H.: Reconstruction of the Herschel Pointing Jitter, Technical Report PICC-ME-TN-042, rev. 1.0 (September 2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Griffin, M.J., et al.: The Herschel-SPIRE instrument and its in-flight performance. A&A 518, L3 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kessler, M.F., Mller, T.G., Leech, K., et al.: The ISO Handbook, Volume I: ISO – Mission & Satellite Overview, ESA SP-1262 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Klaas, U., et al.: PACS Performance Verification Phase Plan, PICC-MA-PL-001, Issue 2.0 (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lutz, D. et al.: PACS photometer PSF, PICC-ME-TN-033, rev. 2.0 (4 April 2012) Available at http://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/pub/Public/PacsCalibrationWeb/bolopsf_20.pdf.
  17. 17.
    Marston, A. P., Sánchez-Portal, M.: the Herschel Pointing Working Group, Herschel Pointing Calibration Plan, HERSCHEL-HSC-DOC-1139, rev. 1.1 (2 April 2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Müller, T., et al.: A&A 558, 97 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nielbock, M., et al.: PACS pointing calibration sources, PICC-MA-TN-003, rev. 1.1 (10 April 2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nielbock, M., Müller, T., Klaas, U., et al.: The Herschel PACS photometer calibration - A time dependent flux calibration for the PACS chopped point-source photometry AOT mode. Exp. Astron., 35 (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ott, S.: ASP Conference Series 434, 139 (2010)ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pilbratt, G.L., et al.: Herschel space observatory. A&A 518, L1 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poglitsch, A., et al.: The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) on the herschel space observatory. A&A 518, L2 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sánchez-Portal, M., Marston, A. P., the Herschel Pointing Working Group: Herschel Routine Phase Pointing Calibration Plan, HERSCHEL-HSC-DOC-1622, rev. 0.1 (12 February 2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sánchez-Portal, M., et al.: Herschel Pointing Calibration Report, HERSCHEL-HSC-DOC-1515, rev. 1.0, (25 November 2009).// Available at http://herschel.esac.esa.int/twiki/pub/Public/SpacecraftObservatoryWeb/pointing_calibration_report_v10.pdf
  26. 26.
    Stephenson, C.A.: Calculation of the 68th percentile of the Absolute Pointing Error, HERSCHEL-HSC-TN-2059, Issue 1.0, (December 2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tuttlebee, M.: Herschel/Planck Star Tracker Performance Assessment and Calibration, PT-CMOC-OPS-RP-6435-HSO-GF, Issue 1.0 (August 2013)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wertz, J. R. (Ed.): Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control, Kluwer Academic Publishers (1978)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel Sánchez-Portal
    • 1
  • Anthony Marston
    • 2
  • Bruno Altieri
    • 2
  • Hervé Aussel
    • 3
  • Helmut Feuchtgruber
    • 4
  • Ulrich Klaas
    • 5
  • Hendrik Linz
    • 5
  • Dieter Lutz
    • 4
  • Bruno Merín
    • 2
  • Thomas Müller
    • 4
  • Markus Nielbock
    • 5
  • Marc Oort
    • 6
  • Göran Pilbratt
    • 7
  • Micha Schmidt
    • 8
  • Craig Stephenson
    • 9
  • Mark Tuttlebee
    • 10
  • The Herschel Pointing Working Group
  1. 1.ISDEFE for ESA, Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)Villanueva de la CañadaMadridSpain
  2. 2.Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)/ESAVillanueva de la CañadaMadridSpain
  3. 3.CNRS/Service d’AstrophysiqueGif-sur-YvetteFrance
  4. 4.Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikGarchingGermany
  5. 5.Max-Planck-Institut für AstronomieHeidelbergGermany
  6. 6.Dutch Space B.V.LeidenThe Netherlands
  7. 7.ESA Astrophysics Missions Div./Research and Scientific Support Dept.ESTEC/SRE-SANoordwijkThe Netherlands
  8. 8.European Space Operations Centre (ESOC)/ESADarmstadtGermany
  9. 9.Telespazio Vega for ESA, Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)Villanueva de la CañadaMadridSpain
  10. 10.SCISYS for ESA, ESOCDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations