, 215:146 | Cite as

Identification and mapping of a photoperiod response gene (QPpd.zafu-4A) on wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) chromosome 4AL

  • Jinsheng Yu
  • Yunzheng Miao
  • Siqing Yang
  • Zhaobin Shi
  • Nana Miao
  • Mingquan Ding
  • Hua Zhang
  • Yurong Jiang
  • Junkang RongEmail author


Heading date (HD) is an important agronomic trait, influencing directly or indirectly yield and quality traits. Previous experiments showed that the chromosome arm substitution line (CASL) 4AL of wild emmer in the background of Chinese Spring (CS) was about 18–22 days later in HD than CS. In this study, CASL4AL flowered roughly 20 days earlier than CS grown under long day (LD) with short day (SD) vernalization, but failed to flower when planted under controlled SD conditions. The above results suggest CASL4AL carries an extremely sensitive photoperiod response gene. CASL4AL showed a major difference from CS in restricted young spike development, remaining at the double-ridge stage and floret-primordium differentiation stage much longer than CS under SD. To map this gene, the F2 population from cross between CS and CASL4AL were explored in two consecutive years. In 2016, a HD related QTL flanked by M576 and wmc468 with a LOD score (8.5) was detected. In 2017, this QTL was repeatedly detected with a higher LOD score (10.03), and therefore named as QPpd.zafu-4A. A total of 27 genes were annotated and possible candidate was discussed. This work lays a foundation for map-based cloning of QPpd.zafu-4A and elucidating its molecular mechanism in affecting HD.


Common wheat Wild emmer Heading date QTL mapping Photoperiod response 



The CASLs and their parents (CS and TDIC 140) were kindly provided by Prof. M. Feldman at Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. This research was supported by the National Key Research Program (2016YFD0102002) to Mingquan Ding, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31671684) to Junkang Rong, the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (LY19C060003) to Jinsheng Yu, the New Breeding Project of Zhejiang Province (2016C02050-9-9) and Public Welfare Project of Zhejiang Science and Technology Department (2014C32027) to Yurong Jiang.

Author contributions

JSY, YZM and SQY performed the field experimentation and marker analysis in 2016 and 2017. YZM and NNM did the observation of the spike development under SD and LD conditions in the growth room. ZBS and YRJ did the field experiments of photoperiod response in 2014 and 2015. MQD analyzed the data for primer designing. HZ prepared the wheat materials for experiment. JKR and JSY wrote the paper. JKR conceived, designed, and coordinated the experiments.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10681_2019_2469_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (11 kb)
Supplementary file1 (XLSX 10 kb)
10681_2019_2469_MOESM2_ESM.xls (66 kb)
Supplementary file2 (XLS 66 kb)
10681_2019_2469_MOESM3_ESM.xls (112 kb)
Supplementary file3 (XLS 112 kb)


  1. Ahmadi H, Nazarian F (2007) The inheritance and chromosomal location of morphological traits in wild wheat, Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccoides. Euphytica 158:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beales J, Turner A, Griffiths S, Snape JW, Laurie DA (2007) A pseudo-response regulator is mis-expressed in photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Theor Appl Genet 115:721–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonnin I, Rousset M, Madur D, Sourdille P, Dupuits C, Brunel D, Goldringer I (2008) FT genome A and D polymorphisms are associated with the variation of earliness components in hexaploid wheat. Theor Appl Genet 116:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bullrich L, Appendino ML, Tranquilli G, Lewis S, Dubcovsky J (2002) Mapping of a thermo-sensitive earliness per se gene on Triticum monococcum chromosome 1Am. Theor Appl Genet 105:585–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Díaz A, Zikhali M, Turner AS, Isaac P, Laurie DA (2012) Copy number variation affecting the Photoperiod-B1 and Vernalization-A1 genes is associated with altered flowering time in wheat (Triticum aestivum). PLoS ONE 7(3):e33234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doerge RW, Churchill GA (1996) Permutation tests for multiple loci affecting a quantitative character. Genetics 142:285–294PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Feldman M, Millet E, Abbo S (1994) Exploitation of wild wheat to increase yield and protein content in durum and common wheat. In: Balfourier F, Perretant MR (eds) Proceedings of European Association for research on plant breeding meeting of the genetic resources section. European Association for Plant Breeding Research (EUCARPIA), Clermont-Ferrand, pp 151–161Google Scholar
  8. Ford M, Austin R, Angus W, Sage G (1981) Relationship between the responses of spring wheat genotypes to temperature and photoperiodic treatments and their performance in the field. J Agric Sci 96:623–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fosket DE (1994) Plant growth and development. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  10. Gawroński P, Ariyadasa R, Himmelbach A, Poursarebani N, Kilian B, Stein N, Steuernagel B, Hensel G, Kumlehn J, Sehgal SK, Gill BS, Gould P, Hall A, Schnurbusch T (2014) A distorted circadian clock causes early flowering and temperature-dependent variation in spike development in the Eps-3A m mutant of einkorn wheat. Genetics 196:1253–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Halloran G (1975) Genotype differences in photoperiodic sensitivity and vernalization response in wheat. Ann Bot 39:845–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hong MJ, Kim DY, Kang SY, Kim DS, Kim JB, Seo YW (2012) Wheat F-box protein recruits proteins and regulates their abundance during wheat spike development. Mol Biol Rep 39(10):9681–9696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kamran A, Iqbal M, Navabi A, Randhawa H, Pozniak C, Spaner D (2013) Earliness per se QTLs and their interaction with the photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a in the Cutler × AC Barrie spring wheat population. Theor Appl Genet 126:1965–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kamran A, Iqbal M, Spaner D (2014) Flowering time in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): a key factor for global adaptability. Euphytica 197:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kato K, Miura H, Sawada S (1999) Detection of an earliness per se quantitative trait locus in the proximal region of wheat chromosome 5AL. Plant Breed 118:391–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khlestkina EK, Giura A, Röder MS, Börner A (2009) A new gene controlling the flowering response to photoperiod in wheat. Euphytica 165:579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koressaar T, Remm M (2007) Enhancements and modifications of primer design program Primer3. Bioinformatics 23(10):1289–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kosambi DD (1944) The estimation of map distance from recombination values. Ann Eugen 12:172–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kulwal PL, Roy JK, Balyan HS (2003) QTL mapping for growth and leaf characters in bread wheat. Plant Sci 164:267–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li SJ, Hochstrasser M (1999) A new protease required for cell-cycle progression in yeast. Nature 398:246–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lin F, Xue SL, Tian DG, Li CJ, Cao Y, Zhang ZZ, Zhang CQ, Ma ZQ (2008) Mapping chromosomal regions affecting flowering time in a spring wheat RIL population. Euphytica 164:769–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mayer KF, Martis M, Hedley PE, Simková H, Liu H, Morris JA, Steuernagel B, Taudien S, Roessner S, Gundlach H, Kubaláková M, Suchánková P, Murat F, Felder M, Nussbaumer T, Graner A, Salse J, Endo T, Sakai H, Tanaka T, Itoh T, Sato K, Platzer M, Matsumoto T, Scholz U, Dolezel J, Waugh R, Stein N (2011) Unlocking the barley genome by chromosomal and comparative genomics. Plant Cell 23(4):1249–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meng L, Li HH, Zhang LY, Wang JK (2015) QTL IciMapping: Integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations. Crop J 3:269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Millet E, Rong JK, Qualset C, McGuire P, Bernard M, Sourdille P, Feldman M (2013) Production of chromosome-arm substitution lines of wild emmer in common wheat. Euphytica 190:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Miralles DJ, Richards RA (2000) Responses of leaf and tiller emergence and primordium ignition in wheat and barley to interchanged photoperiod. Ann Bot 85:655–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Murtas G, Reeves PH, Fu YF, Bancroft I, Dean C, Coupland G (2003) A nuclear protease required for flowering-time regulation in Arabidopsis reduces the abundance of SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER conjugates. Plant Cell 15:2308–2319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nevo E, Korol AB, Beiles A, Fahima T (2002) Evolution of wild emmer and wheat improvement-population genetics, genetic resources, and genome organization of wheat’s progenitor, Triticum dicoccoides. Springer, Berlin, p 364Google Scholar
  28. Pearce S, Vanzetti LS, Dubcovsky J (2013) Exogenous gibberellins induce wheat spike development under short days only in the presence of VERNALIZATION1. Plant Physiol 163(3):1433–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ren X, Li CD, Cakir M, Zhang WY, Grime C, Zhang XQ, Broughton S, Sun DF, Lance R (2012) A quantitative trait locus for long photoperiod response mapped on chromosome 4H in barley. Mol Breed 30(2):1121–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scarth R, Law CN (1983) The location of the photoperiod gene, Ppd2 and an additional genetic factor for ear-emergence time on chromosome 2B of wheat. Heredity 51:607–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Song YH, Ito S, Imaizumi T (2013) Flowering time regulation: photoperiod- and temperature-sensing in leaves. Trends Plant Sci 18(10):575–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Turner A, Beales J, Faure S, Dunford RP, Laurie DA (2005) The pseudo-response regulator Ppd-H1 provides adaptation to photoperiod in barley. Science 310:1031–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang S, Basten CJ, and Zeng ZB (2012) Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5. Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
  34. Worland AJ (1996) The influence of flowering time genes on environmental adaptability in European wheats. Euphytica 89:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Worland T, Snape JW (2001) Genetic basis of worldwide wheat varietal improvement. In: Bonjean AP, Angus WJ (eds) The world wheat book: a history of wheat breeding. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris, pp s59–100Google Scholar
  36. Yan L, Fu D, Li C, Blechl A, Tranquilli G, Bonafede M, Sanchez A, Valarik M, Yasuda S, Dubcovsky J (2006) The wheat and barley vernalization gene VRN3 is an orthologue of FT. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:19581–19586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhou W, Jiang Y, Zhang W, Xu G, Rong J (2013) Characterization of large chromosome segment introgressions from Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides into bread wheat with simple repeat markers. Crop Sci 53:1555–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhou W, Wu S, Ding M, Li J, Shi Z, Wei W, Guo J, Zhang H, Jiang Y, Rong J (2016) Mapping of Ppd-B1, a major candidate gene for late heading on wild emmer chromosome Arm 2BS and assessment of its interactions with early heading QTLs on 3AL. PLoS ONE 11(2):e147377Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinsheng Yu
    • 1
  • Yunzheng Miao
    • 1
  • Siqing Yang
    • 1
  • Zhaobin Shi
    • 1
  • Nana Miao
    • 1
  • Mingquan Ding
    • 1
  • Hua Zhang
    • 1
  • Yurong Jiang
    • 1
  • Junkang Rong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The Key Laboratory for Quality Improvement of Agricultural Products of Zhejiang Province, School of Agriculture and Food ScienceZhejiang A&F UniversityLin’an, HangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations