Identification and mapping of a photoperiod response gene (QPpd.zafu-4A) on wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) chromosome 4AL
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Heading date (HD) is an important agronomic trait, influencing directly or indirectly yield and quality traits. Previous experiments showed that the chromosome arm substitution line (CASL) 4AL of wild emmer in the background of Chinese Spring (CS) was about 18–22 days later in HD than CS. In this study, CASL4AL flowered roughly 20 days earlier than CS grown under long day (LD) with short day (SD) vernalization, but failed to flower when planted under controlled SD conditions. The above results suggest CASL4AL carries an extremely sensitive photoperiod response gene. CASL4AL showed a major difference from CS in restricted young spike development, remaining at the double-ridge stage and floret-primordium differentiation stage much longer than CS under SD. To map this gene, the F2 population from cross between CS and CASL4AL were explored in two consecutive years. In 2016, a HD related QTL flanked by M576 and wmc468 with a LOD score (8.5) was detected. In 2017, this QTL was repeatedly detected with a higher LOD score (10.03), and therefore named as QPpd.zafu-4A. A total of 27 genes were annotated and possible candidate was discussed. This work lays a foundation for map-based cloning of QPpd.zafu-4A and elucidating its molecular mechanism in affecting HD.
KeywordsCommon wheat Wild emmer Heading date QTL mapping Photoperiod response
The CASLs and their parents (CS and TDIC 140) were kindly provided by Prof. M. Feldman at Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. This research was supported by the National Key Research Program (2016YFD0102002) to Mingquan Ding, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31671684) to Junkang Rong, the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (LY19C060003) to Jinsheng Yu, the New Breeding Project of Zhejiang Province (2016C02050-9-9) and Public Welfare Project of Zhejiang Science and Technology Department (2014C32027) to Yurong Jiang.
JSY, YZM and SQY performed the field experimentation and marker analysis in 2016 and 2017. YZM and NNM did the observation of the spike development under SD and LD conditions in the growth room. ZBS and YRJ did the field experiments of photoperiod response in 2014 and 2015. MQD analyzed the data for primer designing. HZ prepared the wheat materials for experiment. JKR and JSY wrote the paper. JKR conceived, designed, and coordinated the experiments.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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