, 215:10 | Cite as

Triploid production via heat-induced diploidisation of megaspores in Populus pseudo-simonii

  • Daili Li
  • Ju Tian
  • Yinxuan Xue
  • Hongwei Chen
  • Jun WangEmail author


Triploid breeding in Populus enhances the commercial properties of cultivated trees. Sexual polyploidization through the production of diploid gametes produces elite triploids with heterosis and ploidy vigour. Populus pseudo-simonii is a species indigenous to China. It is highly adaptable and resistant drought, cold, and saline–alkaline stresses. To improve the properties in growth and pulpwood traits of P. pseudo-simonii, we used heat treatments to induce chromosome doubling in the megaspores as a first step in the production of triploid saplings. The heat treatments were applied during development stages of the female flower buds. We produced 117 triploids via the diploidisation of megaspores. The highest proportion of triploids among the offspring (51.43%) was obtained by applying a heat treatment of 40 °C over 4 h to flower buds in which one-third of the catkins were outside the bract scales. The proportion of pachytene was positively correlated with the average rate of triploid production in each bud developmental stage. Thus, among the phases of meiosis, the pachytene stage may be most susceptible to heat treatments aiming to diploidise the megaspores in P. pseudo-simonii. The megasporocytes in these treated flower buds were mostly in the first meiotic division stages, suggesting that the first meiotic division restitution (FDR) type 2n megaspores may have been induced by our experimental procedures. These triploid hybrids derived from FDR type 2n megaspores will probably contribute significantly to programmes aimed at improving commercial properties of Populus congeners in the section Tacamahaca.


Populus pseudo-simonii Triploid breeding Unreduced megaspore High temperature First meiotic division restitution (FDR) 



We thank the Forestry Research Institute of Tongliao City, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, P. R. China, for collecting the plant material and for additional help. This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2018ZY30), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31470662) and the program from the Beijing Municipal Education Commission (CEFF-PXM2018_014207_000024).

Author’s contribution

JW conceived and designed research. DL, JT and YX conducted experiments. HC analysed the data. DL and JW wrote and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Engineering Laboratory in Tree BreedingBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants, MOEBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Biological Sciences and TechnologyBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Beijing Huangfa NurseryBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.College of Urban and Rural DevelopmentBeijing University of AgricultureBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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