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Techno-economic analysis of off-grid solar/wind/biogas/biomass/fuel cell/battery system for electrification in a cluster of villages by HOMER software

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Abstract

Electrification of villages is a vital step for improving the techno-economic conditions of rural areas and crucial for the country’s overall development. The villages’ welfare is one of the main aims of the rural electrification programs. Rural electrification is relatively costly compared to electrification of urban areas. Now, the research question is to find the best combinations of HRES from the available resources in a given village location that can meet the electricity demand in a sustainable manner and to see whether this is a cost-effective solution or not. This study is an attempt to structure a model of electricity generation based on multiple combinations of HRES with the application of HOMER energy software at an identified off-grid village location in India. The main objectives of this study are to analyze the best-suited configuration of a hybrid RE system out of various combinations to meet the village load requirement reliably, continuously and sustainably. The study also reduces the total system net present cost and least cost of energy (COE) using multi-objective HOMER Pro software. In this study, a resource assessment and demand calculation have been carried out and the COE per unit has been ascertained for different systems and configurations. A combination of PV–Wind–Biomass–Biogas–FC along with battery has been identified as the cheapest and most dependable solution with a COE of $0.214/kWh.

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Abbreviations

HOMER:

Hybrid optimization model of electric renewable

COE:

Cost of energy

TNPC:

Total net present cost

ELE:

Electrolyzer

HRES:

Hybrid renewable energy system

BATT:

Battery

DSM:

Demand side management

FC:

Fuel cell

LCOE:

Least cost of energy

SPV:

Solar photo voltaic

BMG:

Biomass generator

BGG:

Biomass generator

WTG:

Wind turbine generator

SOC:

State of charge

H2Tank:

Hydrogen storage tank

DOD:

Depth of discharge

CRF:

Capital recovery factor

PEM:

Polymer electrolyte membrane

γ:

Annual interest (%)

h BGG :

No. of hours operated in BGG

τ:

Plant life

σ:

Hourly self-discharge rate

$:

US dollars

h BMG :

No. of hours operated in BMG

C1, C2, C3, C4:

Four combinations of HRES model

Egen:

Generation of annual energy (kWh)

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Correspondence to Suresh Vendoti.

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Vendoti, S., Muralidhar, M. & Kiranmayi, R. Techno-economic analysis of off-grid solar/wind/biogas/biomass/fuel cell/battery system for electrification in a cluster of villages by HOMER software. Environ Dev Sustain (2020) doi:10.1007/s10668-019-00583-2

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Keywords

  • Hybrid renewable energy system
  • Solar PV
  • Fuel cell system
  • Wind system
  • Biomass/biogas system
  • HOMER pro software