Does ethnic polarization stimulate or relegate trade and environmental performance? A global perspective

  • Nawaz Ahmad
  • Saqib AminEmail author


Well-organized ethnic diversity plays a crucial role in performing quality environment and international trade. Discrimination, segregation and bigotry are escalating the pressure on world’s population and spreading prejudice, later as a consequence may lead to social exclusion. This study aims to investigate whether ethnic or religious diversity affects international trade and the environmental performance by using the data of 187-countries (including 56 high-income, 102 middle-income and 29 low-income countries) of the world. The results indicate that diversity (ethnic and religious) plays a significant positive impact on international trade and environmental performance of high- and middle-income countries and vice versa with low-income countries. This study further suggested that diversity cannot be abbreviated; however, its disastrous effects may be curtailed by providing equal opportunities and peace in society to ensure the well-being of people through cohesiveness.


Ethnic diversity Religious diversity International trade Environmental performance 

JEL Classification

O11 F10 F22 Q50 Z13 



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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Lahore (UOL)LahorePakistan
  2. 2.National College of Business Administration and Economics (NCBA&E)LahorePakistan

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