Long-term trend detection and spatiotemporal analysis of groundwater levels using GIS techniques in Lower Bhavani River basin, Tamil Nadu, India

  • B. Anand
  • D. KarunanidhiEmail author
  • T. Subramani
  • K. Srinivasamoorthy
  • M. Suresh


Groundwater resources are used in various parts of the world to meet out drinking water supply, irrigational practices and industrial applications. These valuable resources are naturally replenished by rainfall infiltration. Due to population growth and industrialization, groundwater resources are often overexploited in different parts of the world particularly in the hard rock areas. It leads to rapid declination in the groundwater level. Therefore, groundwater fluctuation with respect to space and time governs attention throughout the world for the purpose of sustainable management of water resources. In the present study, long-term trend detection and spatiotemporal variation of groundwater levels were analyzed using Geographical Information System (GIS) and performing statistical tests for the Lower Bhavani River basin, Tamil Nadu, India. For this purpose, 32 years long-term groundwater-level data (1984–2015) of 57 observation wells spread over the study area were collected from the government departments. Seasonal variation of groundwater levels was plotted spatially for pre-monsoon (March to May), post-monsoon (January and February), southwest (SW) monsoon (June to September) and northeast (NE) monsoon (October to December) seasons using GIS. The trend variation of groundwater levels was predicted by performing statistical tests such as Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator. The present study indicates that the average annual groundwater level has lowered beyond 15 m (below ground level) during all the monsoon seasons in the year 2003 and 2004, which highlights less rainfall infiltration and overexploitation of groundwater. This leads the hard rock aquifer into stress. The study also shows that the groundwater fluctuation is very high in the southeastern and northeastern parts of the basin, and it is moderate in the northern and northwestern parts of the basin. However, the fluctuation is comparatively less in the central part of the basin because of replenishment of groundwater by the Bhavani River. The trend analysis highlights that declining water table is mostly found during SW monsoon season (summer season), which is observed more than 50% area of the basin. The places such as Emmampoondi, Kumbapanai, Kandisalai, Alukuli, Perikoduveri, P.Mettupalayam, Pudupalayam, Sathyamangalam, Nallagoundanpudur, Kullampalayam and Baguthampalayam are mostly affected by the declining trend in the groundwater level. Therefore, this study recommends for the implementation of large-scale rainwater harvesting system in the Lower Bhavani River basin to augment groundwater resources.


Groundwater level Spatiotemporal variation Mann–Kendall test GIS Lower Bhavani River basin 



The authors are greatly indebted to the Natural Resources Data Management System [NRDMS] Department of Science and Technology (Government of India), Ref. No: NRDMS/01/09/014 dated 31.12.2015, for providing the grants and support to carry out this work effectively. The authors would like to thank Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore-641062, India, for providing all facilities and the wonderful platform for research. Further, authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions which were useful to improve the quality of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Anand
    • 1
  • D. Karunanidhi
    • 1
    Email author
  • T. Subramani
    • 2
  • K. Srinivasamoorthy
    • 3
  • M. Suresh
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringSri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mining Engineering, CEGAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesPondicherry UniversityKalapetIndia
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringNarasu’s Sarathy Institute of TechnologyPoosaripatti, SalemIndia

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