Assessment of the groundwater quality of a highly populated district in Enugu State of Nigeria
- 36 Downloads
This study assessed the water quality of the hand-dug well groundwater of Independence Layout, a highly populated district of Enugu Metropolis in Enugu State of Nigeria by sampling 14 hand-dug wells during the rainy and dry seasons. Samples were collected in such a manner as to ensure that each of the seven zones that make up the district had two wells sampled. The water quality was assessed based on the biological and physico-chemical properties of the groundwater. Atomic absorption spectrometry was employed in the laboratory analysis of the heavy metals. The physico-chemical parameters were determined following standard procedure. Obtained results indicate that the measured parameters were below the water quality standard values of Standard Organization of Nigeria except for lead during the dry season for three wells. Water quality assessment was premised on ranking using water quality index which indicated that all the wells were either of good or excellent quality during the rainy season (with water quality index ranging from 26 to 63) but poor during the dry season (with water quality index ranging from 101 to 106) in three wells. Risk assessment was carried out using hazard index (HI) which revealed insignificant non-carcinogenic health risks as HI values for all the wells were far less than unity (ranging from 0.03 to 0.17). The microbiology of the water indicated the presence of non-pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus subtils in three wells and pathogenic organisms such as E. coli, Serratia spp., Proteus mirbilis and Salmonella spp. in the rest of the wells. The presence of either pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in the groundwater of Independence Layout signals that the water of the study area should be treated before use.
KeywordsWater quality Water quality index Toxic metals Groundwater Health risk
The institutional support from SHELL Centre for Environmental Management and Control throughout this study was highly appreciated.
- APHA (American Public Health Association). (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water (20th ed., Vol. 5, pp. 24–26). New York: AWWA/NPCF.Google Scholar
- British Geological Survey. www.groundwateruk.org/downloads/groundwater_resources. Accessed July, 2017.
- Collee, J. G., Duguid, J. P., Fraser, A. G., & Marmion, B. P. (1989). Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas Vibrio isolation and identification. In T. J. Mackie & J. E. McCartney (Eds.), Practical medical microbiology (pp. 456–571). London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
- Collins, C. H., & Lyne, P. M. (1980). Microbiological methods (4th ed.). London: Butterworths and Co. Publications.Google Scholar
- Eze, A. V., Nwachukwu, E. R., Ngang, B., & Ihedioha, J. N. (2018). Metals contamination of groundwater resources of Enugu North District, South East Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Health Risks, 8(1), 9–17.Google Scholar
- Gawas, D., Lokhande, P. B., & Meijawas, H. A. (2006). Study of physico-chemical parameters of surface water in the Mahad industrial area. Pollution Research, 25, 109–114.Google Scholar
- Gupta, S., Kumar, A., Ojha, C. K., & Seth, G. (2004). Chemical analysis of groundwater of Sanganer area, Jaipur in Rajasthan. Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering, 46, 74–78.Google Scholar
- http://rais.ornl.gov/documents/RAGS_E_EPA540R99005.pdf. Accessed March 30, 2017.
- https://safewater.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/sections/203309158-E-coli-O157-H7. Accessed May, 2018.
- Lemieux, C. L., Long, A. S., Lambert, I. B., Lundstedt, S., Tysklind, M., & White, P. A. (2015). Cancer risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils determined using bioassay-derived levels of benzo(a)pyrene equivalents. Environmental Science and Technology, 49, 1797–1805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Naveeduallah, M. Z. H., Hasmi, M. Z., Yu, C., Shen, H., Duan, D., Shen, C., et al. (2014). Concentrations and human health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in surface water of the Siling Reservoir Watershed in Zhejiang Province China. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 23(3), 801–811.Google Scholar
- Sankar, P., Jayaraman, R., & Gangadeyi, T. (2002). Studies on the hydrography of a Iotic ecosystem-Killiar at Thiruvanthapuram, Kerala, India. Pollution Research, 21, 113–121.Google Scholar
- Schaffer, J. N., & Pearson, M. M. (2015). Proteus mirabilis and urinary tract infections. Microbiology Spectrum. https://doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.uti-0017-2013.Google Scholar
- Sharma, A. S. C., Gupta, S., & Singh, R. N. (2013). Studies on the physico-chemical parameters in water of Keibul Lamajao National Park, Manipur, India. Journal of Environmental Biology, 34, 1019–1025.Google Scholar
- U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (1991). Technical support document for water quality-based toxics control. Washington, DC: Office of Water. EPA 505/2-90-001.Google Scholar
- U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (1993). Groundwater contamination. A guide for small communities. EPA/625/R-93/002.Google Scholar
- U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (2005). Guideline for Carcinogen risk assessment. Risk assessment forum. Washington, DC: USEPA. EPA 630/P-03/001B.Google Scholar
- USGS (United States Geological Survey Circular 1186). (1999). Sustainability of groundwater resources. Denver, CO: USGS.Google Scholar