Advertisement

Measuring environmental, economic, and social sustainability index of tea farms in Rize Province, Turkey

  • Shamsheer ul HaqEmail author
  • Ismet Boz
Article
  • 56 Downloads

Abstract

Tea farms sustainability assessment was the primary aim of this study. A set of socially, scientifically, and self-validated indicators based on the defined basic factor and established criteria were developed and used to measure the tea farms sustainability. A total of 138 tea growers, selected by stratified sampling technique, were interviewed. Various steps were executed such as application of factor analysis after standardizing the indicators to estimate their weights for aggregation them in order to measure the composite tea farms sustainability index. The results show that average farms sustainability index was 0.39, which was not up to the mark. Although the economic sustainability (0.23) was even lower than the overall sustainability index, social (0.51) and environmental (0.43) sustainability indices were higher. Furthermore, in result of k-mean cluster analysis, farmers were clustered into low (42%) and high (58%) sustainability tea farms. The comparison of these two groups demonstrated that the high-sustainability tea farmers were hiring less labor, and also applying low chemical fertilizers at their tea orchards. Regarding farm management practices, they were also good as compared to low-sustainability tea farmers in the practice of terracing, conducting soil test, and applying fertilizer. Moreover, they were significantly different in environmental sustainability than the other group. It was concluded that the economic sustainability lowers the overall sustainability, and in order to increase tea sustainability in study area the first priority should be given to the implementation of agricultural policies focusing on economic conditions of farmers. Two initial strategies of increasing economic sustainability are controlling the chemical fertilizers and employing family members instead of hiring labor. These need to be followed by other factors that lower economic sustainability.

Keywords

Environmental sustainability Economic sustainability Social sustainability Tea farms sustainability Indicators Composite tea farms sustainability index 

Notes

References

  1. Aylangan, P. (2011). Turkish Tea, Turkish cultural foundation. Downloaded on 15 December 2016. Available at http://www.turkishculture.org/culinary-arts/turkish-tea-53.htm.
  2. Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2008). Sustainability indicators: Measuring the immeasurable? (2nd ed.). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  3. Bockstaller, C., & Girardin, P. (2003). How to validate environmental indicators. Agricultural Systems, 76(2), 639–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bockstaller, C., Girardin, P., & Van der Werf, H. G. M. (1997). Use of agroecological indicators for the evaluation of farming systems. European Journal of Agronomy, 7, 261–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bossel, H. (1999). Indicators for sustainable development: Theory, method, applications. Winnipeg: A report to the Balaton Group, International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
  6. Boz, I. (2015). Adoption of innovations and best management practices by goat farmers in eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 7(7), 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boz, I., & Akbay, C. (2005). Factors influencing the adoption of maize in Kahramanmaras province of Turkey. Agricultural Economics, 33(s3), 431–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boz, I., ul Haq, S. U., Yildirim, C., Turkten, H., & Shahbaz, P. (2018). Technical and water use efficiency estimation of adopters and non-adopters of pressurized irrigation systems among hazelnut farmers. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13(43), 2449–2459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Budak, D. B., Boz, I., Akbay, C., & Bas, S. (2012). Factors influencing the adoption of selected innovations by sheep farmers in the east mediterranean region of Turkey. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 11, 1713–1718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cloquell-Ballester, V. A., Cloquell-Ballester, V. A., Monterde-Díaz, R., & Santamarina-Siurana, M. C. (2006). Indicators validation for the improvement of environmental and social impact quantitative assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 26(1), 79–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cousins, C. (1998). Social exclusion in Europe: Paradigms of social disadvantage in Germany, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Policy and Politics, 26(2), 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eckert, H., Breitschuh, G., & Sauerbeck, D. (2000). Criteria and standards for sustainable agriculture. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 163, 337–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edwards, C. A., Lal, R., Madden, P., Miller, R. H., & House, G. (1990). Sustainable agricultural systems. Chapter 1: An overview of sustainable agriculture (p. 4). St. Lucie: St. Lucie Press.Google Scholar
  14. Freudenberg, M. (2003). Composite indicators of country performance: A critical assessment. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, No. 2003/16. Paris: OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/405566708255.
  15. Gafsi, M., & Favreau, J. L. (2010). Appropriate method to assess the sustainability of organic farming systems. In 9th European IFSA symposium (Vol. 47).Google Scholar
  16. Gomez-Limon, J. A., & Riesgo, L. (2009). Alternative approaches to the construction of a composite indicator of agricultural sustainability: An application to irrigated agriculture in the Duero basin in Spain. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 3345–3362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gomez-Limon, J. A., & Riesgo, L. (2010). Sustainability assessment of olive grove in Andalusia: A methodological proposal. In 120th EAAE seminar “external cost of farming activities: Economic evaluation, environmental repercussions and regulatory framework”. Chania, Crete, September 2–4, 2010.Google Scholar
  18. Gomez-Limon, J. A., & Sanchez-Fermandez, G. (2010). Empirical evaluation of agricultural sustainability using composite indicators. Ecological Economics, 69, 1062–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gunduz, O., Ceyhan, V., Erol, E., & Ozkaraman, F. (2011). An evaluation of farm-level sustainability of apricot farms in Malatya province of Turkey. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 9(1), 700–705.Google Scholar
  20. Hani, F., Gerber, T., Stämpfli, A., Porsche, H., Thalmann, C. & Studer, C. (2006). An evaluation of tea farms in Southern India with the sustainability assessment tool RISE. Symposium ID# 1053. Swiss College of Agriculture (SCA), CH–3052 Zollikofen University of Applied Sciences Bern.Google Scholar
  21. Hansen, J. W. (1996). Is agricultural sustainability a useful concept. Agricultural Systems, 50, 117–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harris, J. M. (2003). Sustainability and sustainable development. International society for ecological economics. Internet Encyclopaedia of Ecological Economics, 1(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  23. Hataia, L. D., & Sen, C. (2008). An economic analysis of agricultural sustainability in Orissa. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 21(2), 273–282.Google Scholar
  24. Jollands, N., Lermit, J., & Patterson, M. (2004). Aggregate eco-efficiency indices for New Zealand—A principal components analysis. Journal of Environmental Management, 73(4), 293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lopez-Ridaura, S., Masera, O., & Astier, M. (2002). Evaluating the sustainability of complex socio-environmental systems. The MESMIS framework. Ecological Indicators, 2, 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lopez-Ridaura, S., Van Keulen, H., Ittersum, M. K. V., & Leffelaar, P. A. (2005). Multiscale methodological framework to derive criteria and indicators for sustainability evaluation of peasant natural resource management systems. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 7, 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meyer-Aurich, A. (2005). Economic and environmental analysis of sustainable farming practices—A Bavarian case study. Agricultural Systems, 86, 190–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mitei, Z. (2011). Growing sustainable tea on Kenyan smallholder farms. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9, 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nambiar, K. K. M., Gupta, A. P., Fu, Q., & Li, S. (2001). Biophysical, chemical and socio-economic indicators for assessing agricultural sustainability in the Chinese coastal zone. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 87, 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nicoletti, G., Scarpetta, S., & Boylaud, O. (1999). Summary indicators of product market regulation with an extension to employment protection legislation. Economics Department working papers 226. ECO/WKP(99)18.Google Scholar
  31. Pacini, C., Wossink, A., Giesen, G., Vazzana, C., & Huirne, R. (2003). Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: A farm and field-scale analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 95, 273–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pannell, D. J., & Glenn, N. A. (2000). A framework for the economic evaluation and selection of sustainability indicators in agriculture. Ecological Economics, 33, 135–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Payraudeau, S., & van der Werf, H. M. (2005). Environmental impact assessment for a farming region: A review of methods. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 107(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pinter, L., Bizikova, L., Kutics, K., & Vari, A. (2008). Developing a system of sustainability indicators for the Lake Balaton region. Tájökólogiai Lapok, 6, 271–293.Google Scholar
  35. Rasul, G., & Thapa, G. B. (2004). Sustainability of ecological and conventional agricultural systems in Bangladesh: An assessment based on environmental, economic and social perspectives. Agricultural Systems, 79, 327–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reed, M. S., Fraser, E. D. G., & Dougill, A. J. (2006). An adaptive learning process for developing and applying sustainability indicators with local communities. Ecological Economics, 59, 406–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rigby, D., Woodhouse, P., Young, T., & Burton, M. (2001). Constructing a farm level indicator of sustainable agricultural practice. Ecological Economics, 39, 463–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roy, R., & Chan, N. W. (2012). An assessment of agricultural sustainability indicators in Bangladesh: Review and synthesis. The Environmentalist, 32(1), 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. RTB. (2014). Rize Ticaret Borsasi; Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesi Tarim Ürünleri Raporu. Available at http://www.rtb.org.tr/icerik/bolgesel-arastirma-ve-raporlar. Accessed 23 Sept 2018.
  40. Sajjad, H., & Nasreen, I. (2016). Assessing farm-level agricultural sustainability using site-specific indicators and sustainable livelihood security index: Evidence from Vaishali district, India. Community Development.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15575330.2016.1221437.Google Scholar
  41. Saysel, A. K., Barlas, Y., & Yenigün, O. (2002). Environmental sustainability in an agricultural development project: A system dynamics approach. Journal of Environmental Management, 64(3), 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sharma, D., & Shardendu, S. (2011). Assessing farm-level agricultural sustainability over a 60-year period in rural eastern India. The Environmentalist, 31(3), 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Singh, B. P. (2013). Biofuel crop sustainability (p. 480). Ames, IA: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tatlıdil, F. F., Boz, I., & Tatlidil, H. (2009). Farmers’ perception of sustainable agriculture and its determinants: A case study in Kahramanmaras province of Turkey. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 11(6), 1091–1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tellarini, V., & Caporali, F. (2000). An input/output methodology to evaluate farms as sustainable agroecosystems: An application of indicators to farms in central Italy. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 77(1), 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Terano, R., Mohamed, Z., Shamsudin, M. N., & Abd-Latif, I. (2015). Farmers sustainability index: The case of paddy farmers in state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences, 1, 55–67.Google Scholar
  47. ul Haq, S., & Boz, I. (2018). Developing a set of indicators to measure sustainability of tea cultivating farms in Rize Province, Turkey. Ecological Indicators, 95, 219–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. ul Haq, Shamsheer, Shahbaz, P., Boz, I., Yildirim, C., & Murtaza, M. R. (2017). Exploring the determinants of technical inefficiency in mango enterprise: A case of Muzafargarh, Pakistan. Custos E Agronegocio On Line, 13(2), 218–236.Google Scholar
  49. Van Cauwenbergh, N., Biala, K., Bielders, C., Brouckaert, V., Franchois, L., Cidad, V. G., et al. (2007). SAFE—A hierarchical framework for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 120(2), 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Van der Werf, H. G. M., & Petit, J. (2002). Evaluation of environmental impact of agriculture at the farm level: A comparison and analysis of 12 indicator-based methods. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 93, 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. van Meul, M., Passel, S., Nevens, F., Dessein, J., Rogge, E., Mulier, A., et al. (2008). MOTIFS: A monitoring tool for integrated farm sustainability. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 28, 321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vecchione, G. (2010). EU rural policy: Proposal and application of an agricultural sustainability index. MPRA Paper No. 27032, Downloaded from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/27032/1/MPRA_paper_27032.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2018.
  53. Von Wirén-Lehr, S. (2001). Sustainability in agriculture—An evaluation of principal goal-oriented concepts to close the gap between theory and practice. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 84(2), 115–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. WCED. (1987). Development and international economic co-operation: Environment. New York: Report of World Commission on Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  55. WSSD. (2002). Report of the world summit on sustainable development. A/CONF.199/20. Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August–4 September 2002. New York.Google Scholar
  56. Yamane, T. (2001). Temel Örnekleme Yöntemleri. Çevirenler: Alptekin Esin, Celal Aydın, M. Akif Bakır, Esen Gürbüzsel. Literatür Yayıncılık, İstanbul.Google Scholar
  57. Zahm, F., Viaux, P., Vilain, L., Girardin, P., & Mouchet, C. (2008). Assessing farm sustainability with the IDEA method—From the concept of agricultural sustainability to case studies on farms. Sustainable Development, 16(4), 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhen, L., & Routray, J. K. (2003). Operational indicators for measuring agricultural sustainability in developing countries. Environmental Management, 32(1), 34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhen, L., Routray, J. K., Zoebisch, M. A., Chen, A., Xie, G., & Cheng, S. (2005). Three dimensions of sustainability of farming practices in the North China Plain: A case study from Ningjin County of Shandong Province, PR China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 105, 507–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural EconomicsOndokuz Mayıs UniversitySamsunTurkey

Personalised recommendations