Landfill leachate has an adverse impact on groundwater quality as well as on living being. It contain high levels of organic, inorganic, heavy metal, and xenobiotics, which percolates through the subsoil and contaminate the groundwater. To assess the effect of landfills on groundwater, various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals, and microbiological examination of leachate and groundwater samples was conducted. The results obtained were compared with Bureau of India Standards and World Health Organization guidelines. The results of the study shows that the majority of the sample do not lie in the permissible limits. According to the results, the concenteration of ammoniacal nitrogen (9.8 mg/L), chemical oxygen demand (128 mg/L), chloride (115 mg/L), sodium (98 mg/L) and potassium (42.2 mg/L) was found relatively higher in water samples that have lower depth (30 ft) and distance (1 km) from the landfill. The concentration of measured parameters decreases with increase in depth and distance confirming that the leachate is the potential source of groundwater contamination. Hazard index of Chandigarh, Mohali, and Panchkula landfill site was 0.61, 0.53, and 0.01 mg/kg/day in pre-monsoon and 0.38, 0.24, and 0.01 mg/kg/day in post-monsoon indicating non-carcinogenic health risks.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abd El-Salam, M. M., & Abu-Zuid, G. I. (2014). Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt. Journal of Advanced Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2014.02.003.
Abdul, S., Al, H., Sulaiman, H., Suliman, F. E., & Abdallah, O. (2014). Assessment of heavy metals in leachate of an unlined landfill in the sultanate of Oman. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development,5(1), 10–13. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJESD.2014.V5.451.
Aboyeji, O. S., & Eigbokhan, S. F. (2016). Evaluations of groundwater contamination by leachates around Olusosun open dumpsite in Lagos metropolis, southwest Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Management,183, 333–341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.002.
Adamu, C. I., Nganje, T. N., & Edet, A. (2015). Environmental nanotechnology, monitoring & management heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment associated with abandoned barite mines in Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management,3, 10–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2014.11.001.
Akinbile, C. O., Yusoff, M. S., & Area, A. S. (2011). Environmental impact of leachate pollution on groundwater supplies in Akure, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment Science and Development, 2(1).
Alexandre Bogas, J., & Gomes, A. (2015). Non-steady-state accelerated chloride penetration resistance of structural lightweight aggregate concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites,60, 111–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2015.04.001.
Al-Tarazi, E., Abu Rajab, J., Al-Naqa, A., & El-Waheidi, M. (2008). Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method. Journal of Applied Geophysics,65(3–4), 121–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2008.06.005.
Aluko, O. O., Sridhar, M. K. C., & Oluwande, P. A. (2003). Characterization of leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill site in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Environment Health Research,2(1), 32–37.
Behbahaninia, A., Mirbagheri, S. A., & Nouri, J. (2010). Effects of sludge from wastewater treatment plants on heavy metals transport to soils and groundwater. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering,7(5), 401–406.
Bhatt, A. H., Altouqi, S., Karanjekar, R. V., Sahadat Hossain, M. D., Chen, V. P., & Sattler, M. S. (2016). Preliminary regression models for estimating first-order rate constants for removal of BOD and COD from landfill leachate. Environmental Technology & Innovation,5(February), 188–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2016.02.002.
Bhupander, K., & Mukherjee, D. P. (2011). Assessment of human health risk for arsenic, copper, nickel, mercury and zinc in fish collected from tropical wetlands in. Advanced Life Science and Technologyife Science and Technology,2, 13–25.
Bikundia, D. S., & Mohan, D. (2014). Major ion chemistry of the ground water at the Khoda Village, Ghaziabad, India. Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology,3, 133–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.swaqe.2014.12.001.
EPA. (2005). Provisional peer reviewed toxicity values for ammonia.
EPA. (2014). Framework for human health risk assessment to inform decision making framework for human health risk assessment to inform decision making.
Haarstad, K., & Mæhlum, T. (2007). Electrical conductivity and chloride reduction in leachate treatment systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering,133(6), 659–664. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2007).
Hanipha, M., & Zahir Hussain, A. (2013). Study of groundwater quality at Dindigul Town, Tamilnadu, India. International Research Journal of Environment Science,2(1), 68–73.
Jhamnani, B., & Singh, S. (2009). Groundwater contamination due to Bhalaswa landfill site in New Delhi. International Journal of Environment Science and Engineering,1(3), 121–125. Retrieved from http://idc-online.com/technical_references/pdfs/civil_engineering/GroundwaterContamination.pdf.
Kalčíková, G., Babič, J., Pavko, A., & Gotvajn, A. Ž. (2014). Fungal and enzymatic treatment of mature municipal landfill leachate. Waste Management (New York, N.Y.),34(4), 798–803. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.12.017.
Kaur, K., Ravindra, K., & Mor, S. (2015). A Glance at the World-Waste management policies in India: Can we address the implementation challenges. Waste Management, 37, I-II.
Khai, N. M. (2012). Chemical precipitation of ammonia and phosphate from Nam Son Landfill Leachate, Hanoi. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment,3, 32–36. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ijee.2012.03.05.06.
Khound, N. J., Phukon, P., & Bhattacharyya, K. G. (2012). A comparative study of ground water and surface water quality in the Jia—Bharali river basin, Assam, India with reference to physico-chemical characteristics. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering Research,1(3), 512–521. https://doi.org/10.6088/ijaser.0020101052.
Magombeyi, M., & Nyengera, R. (2012). The impact of municipal landfill on surface and ground water quality in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Wudpeckerresearchjournals.Org, 1 (November), 251–258. Retrieved from http://www.wudpeckerresearchjournals.org/JESWR/Pdf/2012/November/MagombeyiandNyengera.pdf.
Maiti, S. K., Hazra, T., & Dutta, A. (2016). Characterization of leachate and its impact on surface and groundwater quality of a closed dumpsite—A case study at Dhapa, Kolkata, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences,35, 391–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.019.
Mangimbulude, J. C., Van Breukelen, B. M., Krave, A. S., Van Straalen, N. M., & Röling, W. F. M. (2009). Seasonal dynamics in leachate hydrochemistry and natural attenuation in surface run-off water from a tropical landfill. Waste Management,29(2), 829–838. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2008.06.020.
Mor, S., Ravindra, K., Dahiya, R. P., & Chandra, A. (2006a). Leachate characterization and assessment of groundwater pollution near municipal solid waste landfill site. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 118(1–3), 435–456. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-1505-7.
Mor, S., Ravindra, K., De Visscher, A., Dahiya, R. P., & Chandra, A. (2006b). Municipal solid waste characterization and its assessment for potential methane generation: A case study. Science of the Total Environment, 371(1–3), 1–10.
Mor, S., Kaur, K., & Khaiwal, R. (2016). SWOT analysis of waste management practices in Chandigarh, India and prospects for sustainable cities. Journal of Environmental Biology, 37(3), 327.
Mor, S., Negi, P., & Kaiwal, R. (2018). Assessment of groundwater pollution by landfills in India using leachate pollution index and estimation of error. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2018.09.002.
Nagarajan, R., Thirumalaisamy, S., & Lakshumanan, E. (2012). Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of Erode City, Tamil Nadu, India. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering,9(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/1735-2746-9-35.
Naveen, B., Mahapatra Madhab, D., Sitharam, T., Sivapullaiah, P., & Ramachandra, T. (2017). Physico-chemical and biological characterization of urban municipal landfill leachate. Environmental Pollution,220, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.002.
Nirmla, D., & Jagath, G. (2013). Leachate characterization and surface groundwater pollution at municipal solid waste landfill of Gohagoda, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Scientific Research,3(11), 1–7.
Piper, A. M. (1953). A graphic procedure in the geological interpretation of water analysis. Groundwater note no. 12, US Geology Survey Department, Washington, DC.
Pokkate, W., Serilert, C., Siriwong, W., & Mark, R. (2013). Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agriculture area in Ubon Ratchthani province, Thailand. Envitonment Geochemical Health. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-013-9537-8.
Pujari, P. R., Labhasetwar, P. K., Mahore, P., & Ganguly, A. K. (2011). Assessment of the impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater pollution in two diverse geological settings—A case study from India. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-1965-2.
Rajasekhar, B., Nambi, I. M., & Kumar, S. (2018). Human health risk assessment of ground water contaminated with petroleum PAHs using Monte Carlo simulations: A case study of an Indian Metropolitan City. Journal of Environmental Management,205, 183–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.09.078.
Raju, M. V. S. (2012). Contamination of ground water due to landfill leachate. International Journal of Engineering Research,53(1), 48–53.
Rao, J., Hari Babu, B., Swami, A. V. V. S., & Sumithra, S. (2013). Chemical characteristics of ground water of Vuyyuru. Part of East Coast of India Abstract: Journal of Environment Research and Technology,3(2), 225–232.
Ravindra, K., Kaur, K., & Mor, S. (2015). System analysis of municipal solid waste management in Chandigarh and minimization practices for cleaner emissions. Journal of Cleaner production, 89, 251–256.
Ravindra, K., Kaur, K., & Mor, S. (2016). Occupational exposure to the municipal solid waste workers in Chandigarh, India. Waste Management & Research, 34(11), 1192–1195.
Renou, S., Givaudan, J. G., Poulain, S., Dirassouyan, F., & Moulin, P. (2008). Landfill leachate treatment: Review and opportunity. Journal of Hazardous Materials,150(3), 468–493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.09.077.
Reyes-lópez, J. A., Ramírez-hernández, J., & Lázaro-mancilla, O. (2008). Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: A case in México,28, 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2008.03.024.
Sadashivaiah, C., Ramakrishnaiah, C. R., & Ranganna, G. (2008). Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka state, India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 5(3), 158–164. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph5030158.
Sadeq, M., Moe, C. L., Attarassi, B., Cherkaoui, I., ElAouad, R., & Idrissi, L. (2008). Drinking water nitrate and prevalence of methemoglobinemia among infants and children aged 1–7 years in Moroccan areas. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health,211(5–6), 546–554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.09.009.
Sarvajayakesavalu, S., Lakshminarayanan, D., George, J., Magesh, S. B., Anilkumar, K. M., Brammanandhan, G. M., et al. (2018). Groundwater for sustainable development geographic information system mapping of gross alpha/beta activity concentrations in ground water samples from Karnataka, India: A preliminary study. Groundwater for Sustainable Development,6(November 2016), 164–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2017.12.003.
Shivaprasad, H., Nagarajappa, D. P., & Sham Sundar, K. M. (2014). A study on physico-chemical characteristics of borewell water in sugar town, Mandya City, Karnataka State, India. Internation Journal of Engineering and Application,4(7), 112–123.
Shivendra, B. T., & Ramaraju, H. K. (2015). Impact of onsite sanitation system on groundwater in different geological settings of Peri Urban areas. Aquatic Procedia,4(Icwrcoe), 1162–1172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2015.02.148.
Shukla, H. C., Gupta, P., Mehta, H. C., & Hebert, J. (2002). Descriptive epidemiology of body mass index of an urban adult population in western India. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health,56, 876–880.
Sidhu, S. P., & Sharma, B. D. (2009). Characteristics and classification of arid zone soils of Punjab, India. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilation, 4(4), 223–232.
Siraj, K., & Kitte, S. A. (2013). Analysis of copper, zinc and lead using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in ground water of Jimma town of Southwestern Ethiopia. International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science,4(4), 201–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcas.2013.07.006.
Srivastava, S. K., & Ramanathan, A. L. (2008). Geochemical assessment of groundwater quality in vicinity of Bhalswa landfill, Delhi, India, using graphical and multivariate statistical methods. Environmental Geology,53(7), 1509–1528. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0762-2.
Sun, C., Zhao, W., Zhang, Q., Yu, X., Zheng, X., & Zhao, J. (2016). Spatial distribution, sources apportionment and health risk of metals in topsoil in Beijing, China. Environment Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070727.
Tank, D. K., & Chandel, C. P. S. (2010). Analysis of the major ion constituents in groundwater of Jaipur City. Nature and Science,8(10), 1–7.
Wang, J., He, J., & Chen, H. (2012). Science of the total environment assessment of groundwater contamination risk using hazard quantification, a modified DRASTIC model and groundwater value, Beijing Plain, China. Science of the Total Environment,432, 216–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.06.005.
Wang, Z., Jiang, Y., Kumar, M., Wang, J., Yang, X., & Amjad, A. (2018). Nitrate removal by combined heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification processes: Impact of coexistent ions. Bioresource Technology,250(December 2017), 838–845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.12.009.
Wang, W., Ma, C., Zhang, Y., Yang, S., Shao, Y., & Wang, X. (2016). Phosphate adsorption performance of a novel filter substrate made from drinking water treatment residuals. Journal of Environmental Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2016.01.010.
Woldeyohans, A. M., Worku, T., Kloos, H., & Mulat, W. (2014). Treatment of leachate by recirculating through dumped solid waste in a sanitary landfill in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ecological Engineering,73, 254–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.09.052.
Yaqout-Al, A., & Hamoda, M. F. (2003). Evaluation of landfill leachate in arid climate—A case study. Environment International,29(5969), 593–600. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00018-7.
Funding was provided by University Grants Commission (IN) (Grant No. MANF-2013-14-BUD-28213).
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Negi, P., Mor, S. & Ravindra, K. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality in three cities of North India and health risk assessment. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 1455–1474 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-018-0257-1
- Heavy metals
- Hazard Index