Advertisement

Implications of demographic changes and land transformations on surface water quality of rural and urban subbasins of Upper Bhima River basin, Maharashtra, India

  • 143 Accesses

Abstract

For sustainable development in a river basin, it is crucial to understand population growth–land use/land cover (LU/LC) transformations–water quality nexus. This study investigates the effects of demographic changes and LU/LC transformations on surface water quality of rural (Ghod) and urban (Mula-Mutha) subbasins of Upper Bhima River basin. Population data (1981–2011) and LU/LC data {October 2002 [Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data] and October/November 2009 (Indian Remote Sensing 1C Linear Imaging Self Scanner III data]} were analysed using statistical, remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to study demographic and LU/LC changes, respectively. Further, overall indices of pollution (OIPs) developed specifically for rural subbasin (OIPr: Hardness CaCO3 and Total Dissolved Solids), urban subbasin (OIPu: Biological Oxygen Demand, Chlorides, Coliform Total, Colour, Dissolved Oxygen%, pH and Turbidity) and single OIP considering all parameters (OIPa) were used for spatio-temporal water quality assessment of pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Results revealed that from 1981 to 2011, population increase was higher in urban subbasin than in rural subbasin. Subsequently, from 2002 to 2009 mainly increase in built-up lands (3.82%) and agricultural lands (15.35%) in urban and rural subbasins respectively, affected their water quality. From 2002 to 2009, the highest increase in OIPr and OIPu was observed at Kashti (3.37–6.52 due to fertilizers) and Bundgarden Bridge (3.03–7.83 due to municipal and industrial wastes) stations of rural and urban subbasins, respectively. With significant increase in OIPa of 2.74–6.70, Bundgarden Bridge station affected by urbanization had the most polluted water quality.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  1. Abbasi, T., & Abbasi, S. A. (2012). Water quality indices. New York: Elsevier.

  2. Arisz, H., & Burrell, B. C. (2006). Urban drainage infrastructure planning and design considering climate change. In EIC Climate Change Technology. IEEE (pp. 1–9). https://doi.org/10.1109/eicccc.2006.277251.

  3. Attua, E. M., Ayamga, J., & Pabi, O. (2014). Relating land use and land cover to surface water quality in the Densu River basin, Ghana. International Journal of River Basin Management,12(1), 57–68.

  4. Bahar, M. M., Ohmori, H., & Yamamuro, M. (2008). Relationship between river water quality and land use in a small river basin running through the urbanizing area of Central Japan. Limnology,9(1), 19–26.

  5. Ballester, M. V. R., de C Victoria, D., Krusche, A. V., Coburn, R., Victoria, R. L., Richey, J. E., et al. (2003). A remote sensing/GIS-based physical template to understand the biogeochemistry of the Ji-Parana river basin (Western Amazonia). Remote Sensing of Environment,87(4), 429–445.

  6. Ban, X., Wu, Q., Pan, B., Du, Y., & Feng, Q. (2014). Application of Composite Water Quality Identification Index on the water quality evaluation in spatial and temporal variations: A case study in Honghu Lake. China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,186(7), 4237–4247.

  7. Berakhi, R. O., Oyana, T. J., & Adu-Prah, S. (2014). Land use and land cover change and its implications in Kagera river basin, East Africa. African Geographical Review, 1–23 (ahead-of-print).

  8. Björklund, G., Connor, R., Goujon, A., Hellmuth, M., Moriarty, P., Rast, W., Warner K., & Winpenny J. (2011). Demographic, economic and social drivers: Chapter 2. World water development report 3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). http://webworld.unesco.org/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr3/pdf/12_WWDR3_ch_2.pdf. Accessed 05 August 2015.

  9. Chalmers, A. T., Van Metre, P. C., & Callender, E. (2007). The chemical response of particle-associated contaminants in aquatic sediments to urbanization in New England, USA. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology,91(1), 4–25.

  10. Chardhry, P., Sharma, M. P., Bhargava, R., Kumar, S., & Dadhwal, P. J. S. (2013). Water quality assessment of Sukhna Lake of Chandigarh city of India. Hydro Nepal: Journal of Water, Energy and Environment,12, 26–31.

  11. Cuffney, T. F., Meador, M. R., Porter, S. D., & Gurtz, M. E. (2000). Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington. In Monitoring ecological condition in the Western United States (pp. 259–270). Springer Netherlands.

  12. Daniel, M. H., Montebelo, A. A., Bernardes, M. C., Ometto, J. P., de Camargo, P. B., Krusche, A. V., et al. (2002). Effects of urban sewage on dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, and electrical conductivity of small streams along a gradient of urbanization in the Piracicaba river basin. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution,136(1–4), 189–206.

  13. Dewan, A. M., & Yamaguchi, Y. (2009). Using remote sensing and GIS to detect and monitor land use and land cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of Bangladesh during 1960–2005. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,150(1–4), 237–249.

  14. Dorworth, L., & McCormick, R. (2005). Impacts of development on waterways. Planning with POWER, Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West Lafayette, IN, 47907. Available online at https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/ID/ID-257-W.pdf. Accessed on 01 May 2018.

  15. Dubovyk, O., Menz, G., Conrad, C., Kan, E., Machwitz, M., & Khamzina, A. (2013). Spatio-temporal analyses of cropland degradation in the irrigated lowlands of Uzbekistan using remote-sensing and logistic regression modeling. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,185(6), 4775–4790.

  16. Elçi, Ş., & Selçuk, P. (2013). Effects of basin activities and land use on water quality trends in Tahtali Basin, Turkey. Environmental Earth Sciences,68(6), 1591–1598.

  17. Farzadkia, M., Djahed, B., Shahsavani, E., & Poureshg, Y. (2015). Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,187(4), 1–15.

  18. Garg, K. K., Bharati, L., Gaur, A., George, B., Acharya, S., Jella, K., et al. (2012). Spatial mapping of agricultural water productivity using the SWAT model in Upper Bhima Catchment, India. Irrigation and Drainage,61, 60–79. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.618.

  19. Gaur, A., & Amerasinghe, P. (2011). A river basin perspective of water resources and challenges. India Infrastructure Report. Available online at https://www.idfc.com/pdf/report/2011/Chp-1-A-River-Basin-Perspective-of-WaterResources-and-C.pdf. Accessed on 01 May 2018.

  20. González, S. O., Almeida, C. A., Calderón, M., Mallea, M. A., & González, P. (2014). Assessment of the water self-purification capacity on a river affected by organic pollution: Application of chemometrics in spatial and temporal variations. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,21(18), 10583–10593.

  21. Haldar, S., Mandal, S. K., Thorat, R. B., Goel, S., Baxi, K. D., Parmer, N. P., et al. (2014). Water pollution of Sabarmati River—a Harbinger to potential disaster. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,186(4), 2231–2242.

  22. Hall, K. J., & Schreier, H. (1996). Urbanization and agricultural intensification in the lower Fraser River Valley: Impacts on water use and quality. GeoJournal,40(1–2), 135–146.

  23. Horton, R. K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation,37(3), 300–306.

  24. Hoseinzadeh, E., Khorsandi, H., Wei, C., & Alipour, M. (2014). Evaluation of Aydughmush River water quality using the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI), River Pollution Index (RPI), and Forestry Water Quality Index (FWQI). Desalination and Water Treatment,54, 2994–3002.

  25. Htwe, T. N., Brinkmann, K., & Buerkert, A. (2015). Spatio-temporal assessment of soil erosion risk in different agricultural zones of the Inle Lake region, southern Shan State. Myanmar. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,187(10), 1–14.

  26. Hummel, D. (2008). Population dynamics and supply systems: A transdisciplinary approach. Frankfurt am Mai: Campus Verlag.

  27. Jamwal, P., Mittal, A. K., & Mouchel, J. M. (2008). Effects of urbanisation on the quality of the urban runoff for Delhi watershed. Urban Water Journal,5(3), 247–257.

  28. Katyal, D., Qader, A., Ismail, A. H., & Sarma, K. (2012). Water quality assessment of Yamuna River in Delhi region using index mapping. Interdisciplinary Environmental Review,13(2–3), 170–186.

  29. Kindu, M., Schneider, T., Teketay, D., & Knoke, T. (2015). Drivers of land use/land cover changes in Munessa-Shashemene landscape of the south-central highlands of Ethiopia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,187(7), 1–17.

  30. Koçer, M. A. T., & Sevgili, H. (2014). Parameters selection for water quality index in the assessment of the environmental impacts of land-based trout farms. Ecological Indicators,36, 672–681.

  31. Kumar, T., & Jhariya, D. C. (2015). Land quality index assessment for agricultural purpose using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Geocarto International,30(7), 822–841.

  32. Larned, S. T., Scarsbrook, M. R., Snelder, T. H., Norton, N. J., & Biggs, B. J. (2004). Water quality in low-elevation streams and rivers of New Zealand: Recent state and trends in contrasting land-cover classes. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research,38(2), 347–366.

  33. Li, Y., Degener, J., Gaudreau, M., Li, Y., & Kappas, M. (2016a). Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes. Science of the Total Environment,569, 168–178.

  34. Li, Y., Li, Y., & Wu, W. (2016b). Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region. Environmental Pollution,208, 87–95.

  35. Li, J., Meng, X., Zhang, Y., Li, J., Xia, L., & Zheng, H. (2015). Analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of water quality in China’s major river basins, and trends between 2005 and 2010. Frontiers of Earth Science,9(3), 463–472.

  36. Liu, Z., Li, Y., & Li, Z. (2009). Surface water quality and land use in Wisconsin, USA–a GIS approach. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences,6(1), 69–89.

  37. Liu, J., Liu, Q., & Yang, H. (2016). Assessing water scarcity by simultaneously considering environmental flow requirements, water quantity, and water quality. Ecological Indicators,60, 434–441.

  38. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB), Government of Maharashtra. (2017). Report on Water Quality Status of Maharashtra 2016-17, Maharashtra, India. http://www.mpcb.gov.in/envtdata/pdf/Water_Quality_Maharashtra_2016_17_report_28112017.pdf. Accessed 17 May 2018.

  39. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) Report. (2008). District Environmental Atlas: Pune District, Maharashtra, Chapter 5. Government report, Environment Department (MPCB), Government of Maharashtra, India. http://mpcb.gov.in/relatedtopics/atlas_pune.php. Accessed 05 August 2015.

  40. Mbuligwe, S. E., & Kaseva, M. E. (2005). Pollution and self-cleansing of an urban river in a developing country: A case study in Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. Environmental management,36(2), 328–342.

  41. Metsäranta, N., Kotola, J., & Nurminen, J. (2005). Effects of urbanization on runoff water quantity and quality: Experiences from test catchments in Southern Finland. International Journal of River Basin Management,3(3), 229–234.

  42. National Informatics Center (NIC)-District Pune. (2009). District Gazetteer Information. Government report, Collectorate Pune District, Government of Maharashtra, India. http://pune.nic.in/puneCollectorate/Gazette/gaz.aspx. Accessed 12 January 2015.

  43. Paule, M. C. A., Ventura, J. R. S., Memon, S., Lee, B. Y., Jahng, D., Kang, M. J., et al. (2015). Fecal contamination in Yongin watershed: Association to land use and land cover and stormwater quality. Desalination and Water Treatment,53(11), 3026–3038.

  44. Phung, D., Huang, C., Rutherford, S., Dwirahmadi, F., Chu, C., Wang, X., et al. (2015). Temporal and spatial assessment of river surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: A study in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area, Vietnam. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,187(5), 1–13.

  45. Prati, L., Pavanello, R., & Pesarin, F. (1971). Assessment of surface water quality by a single index of pollution. Water Research,5(9), 741–751.

  46. Rai, R. K., Upadhyay, A., Ojha, C. S. P., & Singh, V. P. (2011). The Yamuna river basin: Water resources and environment (Vol. 66). Berlin: Springer.

  47. Rangeti, I., Dzwairo, B., Barratt, G. J., & Otieno, F. A. O. (2015). Ecosystem-specific water quality indices. African Journal of Aquatic Science,40(3), 227–234.

  48. Rashid, I., & Romshoo, S. A. (2013). Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality of Lidder River in Kashmir Himalayas. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,185(6), 4705–4719.

  49. Russell, I. A. (2015). Spatio-temporal variability of five surface water quality parameters in the Swartvlei estuarine lake system, South Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science,40(2), 119–131.

  50. Sánchez, E., Colmenarejo, M. F., Vicente, J., Rubio, A., García, M. G., Travieso, L., et al. (2007). Use of the water quality index and dissolved oxygen deficit as simple indicators of watersheds pollution. Ecological Indicators,7(2), 315–328.

  51. Sargaonkar, A., & Deshpande, V. (2003). Development of an overall index of pollution for surface water based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,89(1), 43–67.

  52. Shukla, A. K., Ojha, C. S. P., & Garg, R. D. (2017a). Application of Overall Index of Pollution (OIP) for the assessment of the surface water quality in the upper Ganga River Basin, India. In V. Garg, V. Singh, & V. Raj (Eds.), Development of water resources in India (Water science and technology library) (Vol. 75, pp. 135–149). Cham: Springer.

  53. Shukla, A. K., Ojha, C. S. P., Mijic, A., Buytaert, W., Pathak, S., Garg, R. D., et al. (2017b). Population growth–land use/land cover transformations–water quality nexus in Upper Ganga River basin. Hydrol: Earth System Science Discussion. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2017-384.

  54. Smith, V. H., Tilman, G. D., & Nekola, J. C. (1999). Eutrophication: Impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,100(1), 179–196.

  55. Solaraj, G., Dhanakumar, S., Murthy, K. R., & Mohanraj, R. (2010). Water quality in select regions of Cauvery Delta River basin, southern India, with emphasis on monsoonal variation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,166(1–4), 435–444.

  56. Teng, Y., Yang, J., Zuo, R., & Wang, J. (2011). Impact of urbanization and industrialization upon surface water quality: A pilot study of Panzhihua mining town. Journal of Earth Science,22, 658–668.

  57. Tong, S. T., & Naramngam, S. (2007). Modeling the impacts of farming practices on water quality in the little Miami River Basin. Environmental Management,39(6), 853–866.

  58. Tsihrintzis, V. A., & Hamid, R. (1997). Modeling and management of urban stormwater runoff quality: A review. Water Resources Management,11(2), 136–164.

  59. Tu, J. (2011). Spatially varying relationships between land use and water quality across an urbanization gradient explored by geographically weighted regression. Applied Geography,31(1), 376–392.

  60. Valipour, M. (2012). Number of required observation data for rainfall forecasting according to the climate conditions. American Journal of Scientific Research,74(2012), 79–86.

  61. Valipour, M. (2013a). Evolution of irrigation-equipped areas as share of cultivated areas. Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering,2(1), 1000e114.

  62. Valipour, M. (2013b). Increasing irrigation efficiency by management strategies: Cutback and surge irrigation. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science,8(1), 35–43.

  63. Valipour, M. (2013c). Use of surface water supply index to assessing of water resources management in Colorado and Oregon, US. Advances in Agriculture, Sciences and Engineering Research,3(2), 631–640.

  64. Valipour, M. (2016a). How do different factors impact agricultural water management? Open Agriculture,1(1), 89–111.

  65. Valipour, M. (2016b). Variations of land use and irrigation for next decades under different scenarios. Irriga,1(01), 262–288.

  66. Valipour, M., & Montazar, A. A. (2012). An evaluation of SWDC and WinSRFR models to optimize of infiltration parameters in furrow irrigation. American Journal of Scientific Research,69(2012), 128–142.

  67. Water Resources Department (WRD), Government of Maharashtra, India. (2018). Upper Bhima Sub basin draft report. 2018. https://wrd.maharashtra.gov.in/portal/content/default/pdf/events/K5Draft.pdf. Accessed on 01 May 2018.

  68. Wen, Y., Schoups, G., & Van De Giesen, N. (2017). Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change. Scientific Reports,7, 43289.

  69. Wilson, C. O. (2015). Land use/land cover water quality nexus: Quantifying anthropogenic influences on surface water quality. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,187(7), 1–23.

  70. Yadav, N. S., Kumar, A., & Sharma, M. P. (2014). Ecological health assessment of Chambal River using water quality parameters. Journal of Integrated Science and Technology,2(2), 52–56.

  71. Yanan, J., & Daoxian, Y. (2004). The influence of land use change on karst water quality of Shuicheng Basin in Guizhou Province. Journal of Geographical Sciences,14(2), 143–150.

  72. Yang, F., Xu, Z., Zhu, Y., He, C., Wu, G., Qiu, J. R., et al. (2013). Evaluation of agricultural nonpoint source pollution potential risk over China with a Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index method. Environmental Technology,34(21), 2951–2963.

  73. Yannopoulos, S. I., Lyberatos, G., Theodossiou, N., Li, W., Valipour, M., Tamburrino, A., et al. (2015). Evolution of water lifting devices (pumps) over the centuries worldwide. Water,7(9), 5031–5060.

  74. Yu, S., Xu, Z., Wu, W., & Zuo, D. (2016). Effect of land use types on stream water quality under seasonal variation and topographic characteristics in the Wei River basin, China. Ecological Indicators,60, 202–212.

  75. Yu, G., Zeng, Q., Yang, S., Hu, L., Lin, X., Che, Y., et al. (2010). On the intensity and type transition of land use at the basin scale using RS/GIS: A case study of the Hanjiang River Basin. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,160(1–4), 169–179.

  76. Zhang, Z. M., Wang, X. Y., Zhang, Y., Nan, Z., & Shen, B. G. (2012). The over polluted water quality assessment of Weihe River based on Kernel density estimation. Procedia Environmental Sciences,13, 1271–1282.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thankfully acknowledge all the support provided by Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering (CSRE), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. We would like to express our gratitude to the Census Department (Government of India) and Hydrology Project Office, Nasik (Government of Maharashtra)/Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (Government of Maharashtra), India, for providing census and water quality data sets, respectively. We are also grateful to anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions that helped to improve the manuscript further.

Author information

Correspondence to Satyavati Shukla.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shukla, S., Gedam, S. & Khire, M.V. Implications of demographic changes and land transformations on surface water quality of rural and urban subbasins of Upper Bhima River basin, Maharashtra, India. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 129–171 (2020) doi:10.1007/s10668-018-0187-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Land use/land cover
  • Overall Index of Pollution
  • Remote sensing
  • Surface water quality
  • Upper Bhima River basin
  • Urbanization