Determinants in the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies: evidence from rainfed-dependent smallholder farmers in north-central Ethiopia (Woleka sub-basin)

  • Amogne Asfaw
  • Belay Simane
  • Amare Bantider
  • Ali Hassen
Article

Abstract

Smallholder rainfed agriculture, which is the mainstay of rural communities in Ethiopia, is negatively affected by climate change. Understanding the adaptations being practiced and factors which determine decision in adoption is vital in designing viable strategies. A cross-sectional survey research design was employed to collect data from 384 randomly selected smallholder farmers to identify adaptation measures being undertaken and to estimate the prominent determinants in the adoption of adaptations in drought-prone areas of north-central Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using percentage, weighted mean index, Chi-square test, t test and multinomial regression model and triangulated with thematic analysis. Around 96% of the respondents have perceived a change in climate and 65.4% employed adaptation measures. Stone/soil bund, changing the farming calendar and switching to short maturing varieties are the most widely practiced adaptations. Barriers inhibiting smallholder farmers from taking adaptation measures were financial constraint, lack of affordable technologies, lack of knowledge, limited access to early warning, uncertainty about the future, shortage of land and scarcity of water. The results from the multinomial discrete choice model revealed that age and educational level of the head, family size, herd size, access to training, access to microfinance, extension services, remittance and perceiving that climate change can be adapted influenced the selection of adaptations. Overcoming financial constraint, strengthening extension service, providing timely information and early warning, intensifying irrigation, integration of non-farm sources of livelihood in the farming system and land resource management would enable to enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers.

Keywords

Climate change Adaptation Adaptive capacity Coping strategies Multinomial logit model Smallholder agriculture 

References

  1. Abid, M., Scheffran, J., Schneider, U. A., & Ashfaq, M. (2015). Farmers’ perceptions of and adaptation strategies to climate change and their determinants; the case of Punjab province, Pakistan. Earth System Dynamic Discussion, 6, 225–243.  https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-6-225-2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adesina, A. A., & Zinnah, M. M. (1993). Technology characteristics, farmers’ perceptions and adoption decisions: A Tobit model application in Sierra Leone. Agricultural Economics, 9, 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Apata, T. G. (2011). Factors influencing the perception and choice of adaptation measures to climate change among farmers in Nigeria. Evidence from farm households in Southwest Nigeria. Environmental Economics, 2(4), 74–83.Google Scholar
  4. Aregu, L., Bishop-Sambrook, C., Puskur, R., Tesema, E. (2010). Opportunities for promoting gender equality in rural Ethiopia through the commercialization of agriculture. IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 18. Nairobi: ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute). p. 84.Google Scholar
  5. Asfaw, A., Simane, B., Hassen, A., & Bantider, A. (2017). Determinants of non-farm livelihood diversification: Evidence from rainfed dependent smallholder farmers in Northcentral Ethiopia (Woleka sub-basin). Development Studies Research, 4(1), 22–36.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21665095.2017.1413411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asfaw, A., Simane, B., Hassen, A., & Bantider, A. (2018). Variability and time series trend analysis of rainfall and temperature in Northcentral Ethiopia: A case study in Woleka sub-basin. Weather and Climate Extremes, 19, 29–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2017.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asnake, G., & Mammo, G. (2016). Farming climate change adaptation mechanisms and factors affecting farmers’ decision to adaptation: A case study in Meket district, North Wollo, Ethiopia. International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research, 6(2), 87–114.Google Scholar
  8. Aster, D. Y., & Seleshi, B. A. (2009). Characterization and Atlas of the Blue Nile Basin and its sub basins. Addis Ababa: International Water Management Institute.Google Scholar
  9. Atinkut, B., & Mebrat, A. (2016). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation to climate variability in Dera district, south Gonder Zone, Ethiopia. Environmental Systems Research, 5, 6.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40068-015-0046-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ayalew, D., Tesfaye, K., Mamo, G., Yitaferu, B., & Bayu, W. (2012). Variability of rainfall and its current trend in Amhara region, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(10), 1475–1486.Google Scholar
  11. Badege, B., Neufeldt, H., Mowo, J., Abdu, A., Muriuki, J., Gemedo, D., et al. (2013). Farmers’ strategies for adapting to and mitigating climate variability and change through agroforestry in Ethiopia and Kenya. In C. M. Davis, B. Bernart, & A. Dmitriev (Eds.), Forestry communications group. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University.Google Scholar
  12. Balew, S., Agwata, J., & Anyango, S. (2014). Determinants of adoption choices of climate change adaptation strategies in crop production by small scale farmers in some regions of Central Ethiopia. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 4(4), 78–93.Google Scholar
  13. Bantider, A., Hurni, H., & Zeleke, G. (2011). Responses of rural households to the impacts of population and land-use changes along the Eastern Escarpment of Wello, Ethiopia. Norwegian Journal of Geography, 65, 42–53.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00291951.2010.549954.Google Scholar
  14. Cafer, A., & Rikoon, S. (2017). Coerced agricultural modernization: A political ecology perspective of agricultural input packages in South Wollo, Ethiopia. Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 32(1), 77–97.Google Scholar
  15. Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling techniques (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. CSA. (2014). Agricultural sample survey (2013/2014): Report on land utilization (private peasant holdings, meher season), Volume IV. Statistical Bulletin no. 573. The federal democratic republic of Ethiopia; Central Statistical Agency (CSA). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  18. Debalke, N. M. (2014). Determinants of farmers’ preference for adaptation strategies to climate change: Evidence from north Shoa zone of Amhara region Ethiopia. American Journal of Social Sciences, 2(4), 56–66.Google Scholar
  19. Dercon, S. (2004). Growth and shocks: Evidence from rural Ethiopia. Journal of Development Economics, 74(2), 309–329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2004.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deressa, T. T., Hassan, M. R., Ringler, C., Alemu, T., & Yesuf, M. (2009). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 19, 248–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deressa, T. T., Yehualashet, H., & Rajan, D. S. (2014). Climate change adaptations of smallholder farmers in south eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 6(11), 354–366.  https://doi.org/10.2897/JAERD14.0577.Google Scholar
  22. Desta, L., Kassie, M., Benin, S., & Pender, J. (2000). Land degradation and strategies for sustainable development in the Ethiopian highlands: Amhara Region. Socio-economic and Policy Research Working Paper 32. Nairobi: ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute).Google Scholar
  23. Easterling, W. E. (2011). Guidelines for adapting agriculture to climate change. In D. Hillel & C. Rosenzweig (Eds.), Handbook of climate change and agroecosystems: Impacts, adaptation and mitigation, ICP series on climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation—Volume 1 (pp. 269–287). London: Imperial College Press.Google Scholar
  24. Elias, A., Nohmi, M., Yasunobu, K., & Ishida, A. (2015). Does gender division of labour matters for the differences in access to agricultural extension services? A case study in North West Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 7(1), 138–147.  https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v7n1p138.Google Scholar
  25. EPCC. (2015). First Assessment Report, Working Group II Agriculture and Food Security. Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Panel on Climate Change (EPCC), Ethiopian Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  26. FDRE (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia). (2011). Ethiopia’s climate-resilient green economy: Green economy strategy. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  27. Gadédjisso-Tossou, A. (2015). Understanding farmers’ perceptions of and adaptations to climate change and variability: The case of the maritime, plateau and Savannah Regions of Togo. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1441–1454.  https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2015.612140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ghosh, B. C., Osman, A. G., & Hossain, E. (2015). Determinants of rice farmers’ preference for adaptation strategies and constraints to climate change adaptation: Evidence from Rajshahi district in Bangladesh. The Journal of Economics, 115, 248–259.Google Scholar
  29. Greene, W. H. (2003). Econometric analysis (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  30. Guush., B., Dereje, M., Hoddinott, J., Koru, B., Nisrane, F., Tadesse, F., Alemayehu, S. T., Ibrahim, W., & Yisehac, Y. (2013). Agricultural Growth Program (AGP) of Ethiopia: Baseline Report 2011 (ESSP II—EDRI Report). Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II (ESSP II) and International Food Policy Research Institute; Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  31. Hameso, S. (2017). Farmers and policy-makers’ perceptions of climate change in Ethiopia. Climate and Development.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2017.1291408.Google Scholar
  32. Harley, M., Horrocks, L., Hodgson, N., & Minnen, J. (2008). Climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators. The European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC) 2008/9.Google Scholar
  33. Hassan, R., & Nhemachena, C. (2008). Determinants of African farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change: Multinomial choice analysis. AfJARE, 2(1), 83–104.Google Scholar
  34. Ifejika Speranza, C. (2010). Resilient adaptation to climate change in African agriculture. Bonn: German Development Institute.Google Scholar
  35. IPCC. (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability; Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 1132.Google Scholar
  37. Kahsay, B. (2013). Diagnosis and intervention plans for south Wollo zone, Amhara region: Livestock and irrigation value chains for Ethiopian smallholders (LIVES) (Unpublished).Google Scholar
  38. Kebede, Y., Gunjal, K., & Coffin, G. (1990). Adoption of new technologies in Ethiopian agriculture: The case of Tegulct-Bulga District, Shoa Province. Agricultural Economics, 4, 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kivlin, J. E., & Fliegcl, F. C. (1966). Farmers’ perceptions of farm practice attributes. Rural Social., 31, 197–206.Google Scholar
  40. Komba, C., & Muchapondwa, E. (2012). Adaptation to climate change by smallholder farmers in Tanzania. Economic Research Southern Africa, ERSA working paper 299. p. 33.Google Scholar
  41. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and Techniques; 2nd revised edition. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. Kumasi, T. C., Antwi-Agyei, P., & Obiri-Danso, K. (2017). Small-holder farmers’ climate change adaptation practices in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Environment, Development and Sustainability.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-0062-2.Google Scholar
  43. Kusmana, C., Candradijaya, A., Syaukat, Y., Faqih, A., Syaufina, L., & Dwiyanti, F. G. (2016). Determinants of smallholder farm households’ adaptation responses to climate change induced rice insufficiency at household level in Sumedang District, Indonesia. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research, 29(3), 124–145.Google Scholar
  44. Lasco, R. D., Habito, C. M., Delfino, R. J., Pulhin, F. B., & Concepcion, R. (2011). Climate change adaptation for smallholder farmers in Southeast Asia. Philippines: World Agroforestry Centre.Google Scholar
  45. Leary, N., & Kulkarni, J. (2007). Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in developing country regions. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).Google Scholar
  46. Makokha, M., Odera, H., Maritim, H. K., Okalebo, J. R., & Iruria, D. M. (1999). Farmers’ perceptions and adoption of soil management technologies in western Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 7(4), 549–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mare, Y. (2017). Gender division of labor and rural women’s control over productive resources: The case of Dita and Mirab Abaya districts, Gamo-Gofa zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 9(10), 230–238.  https://doi.org/10.5897/JAERD2015.0727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mcneeley, S. M., & Lazrus, H. (2014). The cultural theory of risk for climate change adaptation. Weather, Climate and Society, 6, 506–519.  https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-13-00027.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MoFED. (2006). Ethiopia: Building on progress-a plan for accelerated and sustained development to end poverty (PASDEP) (2005/06-2009/10); Volume I: Main Text. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED).Google Scholar
  50. MoFED. (2010). Growth and transformation plan (2010/11–2014/15); Volume I: Main text. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED).Google Scholar
  51. Nigussie, A., Hoag, D., & Alemu, A. (2014). Women’s workload and role in livestock production in pastoral and agro-pastoral communities of Ethiopia: The case of Afar. African Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, 2(4), 138–146.Google Scholar
  52. NMA. (2007). Climate change national adaptation programme of action of Ethiopia. The federal democratic republic of Ethiopia: Ministry of water resources. Addis Ababa: National Meteorological Agency (NMA).Google Scholar
  53. NPC. (2016). Growth and Transformation Plan II (GTP II) (2015/16-2019/20) Volume I: Main Text. Addis Ababa: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, National Planning Commission (NPC).Google Scholar
  54. Nyangena, W. (2007). Social determinants of soil and water conservation in rural Kenya. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 10(6), 745–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Opiyo, F., Wasonga, O. V., Nyangito, M. M., Mureithi, S. M., Obando, J., & Munang, R. (2015). Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya. Climate and Development.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2015.1034231.Google Scholar
  56. Pelling, M. (2011). Adaptation to climate change: From resilience to transformation. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  58. Rosell, S. (2011). Regional perspective on rainfall change and variability in the central highlands of Ethiopia, 1978–2007. Applied Geography, 31(1), 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sarkar, J. (1998). Technological diffusion: Alternative theories and historical evidence. Journal of Economic Surveys, 12(2), 131–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sarker, A. R., Alam, K., & Gow, J. (2013). Assessing the determinants of rice farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change in Bangladesh. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 5(4), 382–403.  https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-06-2012-0033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sarker, M., Itohara, Y., & Haqy, M. (2008). Determinants of adoption decisions: The case of organic farming in Bangladesh. Extension Farming Systems Journal, 5(2), 39–46.Google Scholar
  62. Shongwe, P., Masuku, M. B., & Manyatsi, A. M. (2014). Factors influencing the choice of climate change adaptation strategies by households: A case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP) in Swaziland. Journal of Agricultural Studies, 2(1), 86–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Solomon, A., McCarthy, N., Lipper, L., Arslan, A., Cattaneo, A., & Kachulu, M. (2014). Climate variability, adaptation strategies and food security in Malawi. ESA Working Paper No. 14-08. Rome, FAO.Google Scholar
  64. SWDoFED. (2017). South Wollo zone 2016/2017 budget year statistical bulletin. South Wollo zone Department of finance and Economic Development. Dessie, Ethiopia (unpublished).Google Scholar
  65. Taruvinga, A., Visser, M., & Zhou, L. (2016). Determinants of rural farmers’ adoption of climate change adaptation strategies: Evidence from the Amathole District Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 7(9), 687–692.  https://doi.org/10.18178/ijesd.2016.7.9.863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tazeze, A., Haji, J., & Ketema, M. (2012). Climate change adaptation strategies of smallholder farmers: The case of Babilie District, East Harerghe Zone of Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 3(14), 01–12.Google Scholar
  67. Tesso, G., Emana, B., & Ketema, M. (2012a). Analysis of vulnerability and resilience to climate change induced shocks in North Shewa, Ethiopia. Agricultural Sciences, 3(6), 871–888.  https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2012.36106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tesso, G., Emana, B., & Ketema, M. (2012b). Econometric analysis of local level perception, adaptation and coping strategies to climate change induced shocks in North Shewa, Ethiopia. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science, 2(8), 347–363.Google Scholar
  69. Uddin, M. N., Bokelmann, W., & Entsminger, J. S. (2014). Factors affecting farmers’ adaptation strategies to environmental degradation and climate change effects: A farm level study in Bangladesh. Climate, 2, 223–241.  https://doi.org/10.3390/cli2040223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. UNFCCC. (2007). Climate change: Impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation in developing countries. Bonn: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC).Google Scholar
  71. Wejnert, B. (2002). Integrating models of diffusion of innovations: A conceptual framework. Annual Review Sociology, 28, 297–326.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.28.110601.141051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Williams, R. (2012). Using the margins command to estimate and interpret adjusted predictions and marginal effects. The Stata Journal, 12(2), 308–331.Google Scholar
  73. Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2004). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. World Bank. (2010). Development and climate change. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  75. Wossink, G., de Buck, A., van Niejenhuis, J H., & Haverkamp, H. C. (1997). Farmer perception of weed control techniques in sugarbeet. Agricultural Systems, 55, 409–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amogne Asfaw
    • 1
  • Belay Simane
    • 2
  • Amare Bantider
    • 3
  • Ali Hassen
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Development Studies (Center for Rural Development Studies)Addis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  2. 2.College of Development Studies (Center for Environment and Development Studies)Addis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  3. 3.College of Development Studies (Center for Food Security Studies)Addis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations