Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 2487–2506 | Cite as

Analysis of service quality of household toilets expected by households practicing open defecation: a study in rural settlements of Bihar, India

  • Mohammad RashidEmail author
  • Debapratim Pandit


Service quality of household toilets is an important determinant of toilet adoption and sustained use in rural India. In many instances, household toilets constructed using subsidies provided under sanitation programs remain unused or used for other purposes because they fail to meet the users’ expectations and preferences. The present study aims to analyze the service quality of household toilets based on expectations and preferences of households practicing open defecation in rural settlements of Gaya district of Bihar. This would contribute to improving the existing sanitation programs in India and other developing countries. The service quality of household toilets and preferences of attributes is analyzed using the stated importance, service quality gap analysis and willingness to pay for toilets with expected service quality. The results show that varying proportion of households expects improvement in many of the service quality of household toilet attributes specified under sanitation programs. The improvement in the capacity of disposal systems is considered as the most important attribute by most of the respondents. The households are even willing to pay for expected improvement in attributes of household toilets.


Household toilets India Rural Sanitation marketing Willingness to pay 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture and Regional PlanningIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia

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