Advertisement

Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 621–635 | Cite as

Impact of community-based organizations on climate change adaptation in agriculture: empirical evidence from Nepal

  • Uttam KhanalEmail author
  • Clevo Wilson
  • Viet-Ngu Hoang
  • Boon Lee
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of community-based organizations (CBOs) on the adoption of agricultural adaptations to climate change impacts. To this end, we first analyze farmers’ perceptions on changes in local climatic condition, its impact and adaptations on agriculture based on information collected through a questionnaire survey of 720 farming households in six districts of Nepal. The findings reveal a widespread feeling of weather getting warmer, decreasing precipitation, and increasing weather unpredictability. It is found that climate change has adversely affected agriculture in Nepal, and farmers have adopted various adaptation practices to minimize the impacts. Second, we employ propensity score matching technique to examine the impact of CBOs on climate change adaptation. About 62% of the sampled farming households were associated with CBOs, and several socioeconomic factors influence such association. This study provides evidence supporting the argument that CBOs play important role in reducing the negative impacts of climate change by enhancing the adoption of adaptation strategies. It is also evident from the study the need of further strengthening and institutionalizing the informal farmers’ groups and institutions for the successful adaptation.

Keywords

Farmers’ organization Climate change adaptation Impact evaluation Nepal 

References

  1. Abebaw, D., & Haile, M. G. (2013). The impact of cooperatives on agricultural technology adoption: Empirical evidence from Ethiopia. Food Policy, 38, 82–91.Google Scholar
  2. Adger, W. N., Huq, S., Brown, K., Conway, D., & Hulme, M. (2003). Adaptation to climate change in the developing world. Progress in Development Studies, 3(3), 179–195.Google Scholar
  3. Adhikari, K. P., & Goldey, P. (2010). Social capital and its “downside”: The impact on sustainability of induced community-based organizations in Nepal. World Development, 38(2), 184–194.Google Scholar
  4. Alam, M., & Regmi, B. R. (2004). Adverse impacts of climate change on development of Nepal: Integrating adaptation into policies and activities. Capacity strengthening in the least developed countries for adaptation to climate change. Working paper no. 3.Google Scholar
  5. Amare, M., Asfaw, S., & Shiferaw, B. (2012). Welfare impacts of maize–pigeonpea intensification in Tanzania. Agricultural Economics, 43(1), 27–43.Google Scholar
  6. Ayers, J., & Forsyth, T. (2009). Community-based adaptation to climate change. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 51(4), 22–31.Google Scholar
  7. Bandara, J. S., & Cai, Y. (2014). The impact of climate change on food crop productivity, food prices and food security in South Asia. Economic Analysis and Policy, 44(4), 451–465.Google Scholar
  8. Becerril, J., & Abdulai, A. (2010). The impact of improved maize varieties on poverty in Mexico: A propensity score-matching approach. World Development, 38(7), 1024–1035.Google Scholar
  9. Becker, S. O., & Ichino, A. (2002). Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores. The Stata Journal, 2(4), 358–377.Google Scholar
  10. Below, T. B., Mutabazi, K. D., Kirschke, D., Franke, C., Sieber, S., Siebert, R., et al. (2012). Can farmers’ adaptation to climate change be explained by socio-economic household-level variables? Global Environmental Change, 22(1), 223–235.Google Scholar
  11. Bravo-Ureta, B. E., Almeida, A. N., Solís, D., & Inestroza, A. (2011). The economic impact of MARENA’s investments on sustainable agricultural systems in Honduras. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 62(2), 429–448.Google Scholar
  12. Bryan, E., Deressa, T. T., Gbetibouo, G. A., & Ringler, C. (2009). Adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia and South Africa: Options and constraints. Environmental Science & Policy, 12(4), 413–426.Google Scholar
  13. Caliendo, M., & Kopeinig, S. (2008). Some practical guidance for the implementation of propensity score matching. Journal of Economic Surveys, 22(1), 31–72.Google Scholar
  14. Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2005). Microeconometrics: Methods and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Chaudhary, P., & Bawa, K. S. (2011). Local perceptions of climate change validated by scientific evidence in the Himalayas. Biology Letters, rsbl20110269.Google Scholar
  16. Conley, T. G., & Udry, C. R. (2010). Learning about a new technology: Pineapple in Ghana. The American Economic Review, 100(1), 35–69.Google Scholar
  17. Deressa, T. T., Hassan, R. M., Ringler, C., Alemu, T., & Yesuf, M. (2009). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 248–255.Google Scholar
  18. Di Falco, S., Veronesi, M., & Yesuf, M. (2011). Does adaptation to climate change provide food security? A micro-perspective from Ethiopia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 93(3), 829–846.Google Scholar
  19. Easterling, W., Aggarwal, P., Batima, P., Brander, K., Bruinsma, J., Erda, L., . . . Baethgen, W. (2007). Food, Fibre, and Forest Products. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 273–313). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Faltermeier, L., & Abdulai, A. (2009). The impact of water conservation and intensification technologies: Empirical evidence for rice farmers in Ghana. Agricultural Economics, 40(3), 365–379.Google Scholar
  21. Feder, G., Anderson, J. R., Birner, R., & Deininger, K. (2010). Promises and realities of community-based agricultural extension community, market and state in development (pp. 187–208). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Finger, R., Hediger, W., & Schmid, S. (2011). Irrigation as adaptation strategy to climate change—a biophysical and economic appraisal for Swiss maize production. Climatic Change, 105(3–4), 509–528.Google Scholar
  23. Fischer, E., & Qaim, M. (2012). Linking smallholders to markets: Determinants and impacts of farmer collective action in Kenya. World Development, 40(6), 1255–1268.Google Scholar
  24. Fischer, E., & Qaim, M. (2014). Smallholder Farmers and Collective Action: What Determines the Intensity of Participation? Journal of Agricultural Economics, 65(3), 683–702.Google Scholar
  25. Forsyth, T. (2013). Community-based adaptation: A review of past and future challenges. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 4(5), 439–446.Google Scholar
  26. Fünfgeld, H. (2015). Facilitating local climate change adaptation through transnational municipal networks. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 12, 67–73.Google Scholar
  27. Harmer, N., & Rahman, S. (2014). Climate change response at the farm level: A review of farmers’ awareness and adaptation strategies in developing countries. Geography Compass, 8(11), 808–822.Google Scholar
  28. Huang, J., Wang, Y., & Wang, J. (2015). Farmers’ adaptation to extreme weather events through farm management and its impacts on the mean and risk of rice yield in China. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 97(2), 602–617.Google Scholar
  29. Huq, S., Reid, H., Konate, M., Rahman, A., Sokona, Y., & Crick, F. (2004). Mainstreaming adaptation to climate change in least developed countries (LDCs). Climate Policy, 4(1), 25–43.Google Scholar
  30. IPCC. (2001). Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability: Contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Kassie, M., Jaleta, M., Shiferaw, B., Mmbando, F., & Mekuria, M. (2013). Adoption of interrelated sustainable agricultural practices in smallholder systems: Evidence from rural Tanzania. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(3), 525–540.Google Scholar
  32. Khanal, U., Wilson, C., Hoang, V. N., & Lee, B. (2018). Farmers’ adaptation to climate change, its determinants and impacts on rice yield in Nepal. Ecological Economics, 144, 139–147.Google Scholar
  33. Khandker, S. R., Koolwal, G. B., & Samad, H. A. (2009). Handbook on impact evaluation: Quantitative methods and practices. World Bank Publications.Google Scholar
  34. Khatri-Chhetri, A., Joshi, N. M., & Maharjan, K. L. (2007). Intervention on livelihood management through community-based organizations: Evidence from rural Nepal. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 13(1), 187.Google Scholar
  35. Korten, D. C. (1980). Community organization and rural development: A learning process approach. Public Administration Review, 40, 480–511.Google Scholar
  36. Leuven, E., & Sianesi, B. (2015). PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing. Chestnut Hill: Statistical Software Components, Boston College Department of Economics.Google Scholar
  37. Malla, G. (2009). Climate change and its impact on Nepalese agriculture. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 9, 62–71.Google Scholar
  38. Mendelsohn, R., Dinar, A., & Williams, L. (2006). The distributional impact of climate change on rich and poor countries. Environment and Development Economics, 11(02), 159–178.Google Scholar
  39. MoE. (2010). National adaptation programme of action to climate change. Kathmandu: Ministry of Environment.Google Scholar
  40. MoE. (2011). Climate change policy, 2011. Kathmandu: Ministry of Environment.Google Scholar
  41. Morton, J. F. (2007). The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(50), 19680–19685.Google Scholar
  42. Nelson, G. C., Rosegrant, M. W., Koo, J., Robertson, R., Sulser, T., Zhu, T., et al. (2009). Climate change: Impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation (Vol. 21). Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  43. Nyangena, W. (2008). Social determinants of soil and water conservation in rural Kenya. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 10(6), 745–767.Google Scholar
  44. Pokhrel, D. M., & Thapa, G. B. (2007). Are marketing intermediaries exploiting mountain farmers in Nepal? A study based on market price, marketing margin and income distribution analyses. Agricultural Systems, 94(2), 151–164.Google Scholar
  45. Pufahl, A., & Weiss, C. R. (2009). Evaluating the effects of farm programmes: Results from propensity score matching. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 36(1), 79–101.Google Scholar
  46. Rejesus, R. M., Palis, F. G., Rodriguez, D. G. P., Lampayan, R. M., & Bouman, B. A. (2011). Impact of the alternate wetting and drying (AWD) water-saving irrigation technique: Evidence from rice producers in the Philippines. Food Policy, 36(2), 280–288.Google Scholar
  47. Sarker, M. A. R., Alam, K., & Gow, J. (2014). Assessing the effects of climate change on rice yields: An econometric investigation using Bangladeshi panel data. Economic Analysis and Policy, 44(4), 405–416.Google Scholar
  48. Shrestha, A. B., Wake, C. P., Mayewski, P. A., & Dibb, J. E. (1999). Maximum temperature trends in the Himalaya and its vicinity: An analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971-94. Journal of Climate, 12(9), 2775–2786.Google Scholar
  49. Wossen, T., Berger, T., Mequaninte, T., & Alamirew, B. (2013). Social network effects on the adoption of sustainable natural resource management practices in Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 20(6), 477–483.Google Scholar
  50. Yila, J. O., & Resurreccion, B. P. (2013). Determinants of smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change in the semi arid Nguru Local Government Area, Northeastern Nigeria. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 24(3), 341–364.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uttam Khanal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Clevo Wilson
    • 1
  • Viet-Ngu Hoang
    • 1
  • Boon Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.QUT Business SchoolQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations