Advertisement

Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 51–60 | Cite as

Microbiological assessment of fresh, minimally processed vegetables from open air markets and supermarkets in Luzon, Philippines, for food safety

  • Pierangeli G. VitalEmail author
  • Windell L. Rivera
  • Joseth Jermaine M. Abello
  • Jude Christian E. Francisco
Article
  • 70 Downloads

Abstract

A wide-range investigation of the microbiological quality of fresh produce from different open air markets and supermarkets in Luzon, Philippines was performed. Different vegetables which are usually consumed raw (bell pepper, carrot, lettuce, mung bean sprout, and tomato) had been screened for the presence and amount of contamination of enteric microorganisms, namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and somatic bacteriophages (or viruses). Phenotypic characterization was employed using selective and differential media such as eosin methylene blue agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Viable plate count (colony-forming units or CFU) and most probable number (MPN) methods were used to estimate the cell numbers of E. coli and Salmonella spp., respectively. Double agar assay was used to detect and quantify somatic phages as plaque-forming units (PFU). Polymerase chain reaction was also done to confirm the identity of the isolates using species-specific primers. From a total of 410 vegetable samples collected, 44 bacterial (prevalence of 5.85% E. coli and 5.12% of Salmonella spp.) and 21 (prevalence of 5.12%) viral isolates were obtained. It is alarming to note that samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. were significantly higher in counts (3.751 ± 0.60 log MPN/g) as compared to E. coli (1.472 ± 0.25 log CFU/g), while samples with coliphage (0.316 ± 0.12 log PFU/g) were the least in numbers. The degree of contamination in the samples can cause great risks on the health of individuals especially in developing countries such as the Philippines. Thus, monitoring on the handling of different produce is important to improve the country’s food quality and safety.

Keywords

Bacteriophages Escherichia coli Food safety Fresh produce Salmonella spp. 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the Department of Agriculture—Bureau of Agricultural Research (DA-BAR) of the Philippine Government for the funding support.

References

  1. Ackers, M. L., Mahon, B. E., Leahy, E., Goode, B., Damrow, T., Hayes, P. S., et al. (1998). An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with leaf lettuce consumption. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 177, 1588–1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Artés, F., Gómez, P., Aguayo, E., Escalona, V., & Artés-Hernández, F. (2009). Sustainable sanitation techniques for keeping quality and safety of fresh-cut plant commodities. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 51, 287–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aruscavage, D., Lee, K., Miller, S., & LeJeune, J. T. (2006). Interactions affecting the proliferation and control of human pathogens on edible plants. Journal of Food Science, 71, R89–R99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azanza, M. P. V. (2006). Philippine foodborne disease outbreaks (1995–2004). Journal of Food Safety, 26, 92–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beuchat, L. R., & Ryu, J. H. (1997). Produce handling and processing practices. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3, 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaidez, C., Soto, M., Gortares, P., & Mena, K. (2005). Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in irrigation water and its impact on the fresh produce industry. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 15, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman, P., Siddons, C., Malo, A. C., & Harkin, M. (1997). A 1-year study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. Epidemiology and Infection, 119, 245–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Roever, C. (1998). Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on fresh produce. Food Control, 9, 321–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doran, G., Sheridan, F., DeLappe, N., O’Hare, C., Anderson, W., Corbett-Feeney, G., et al. (2005). Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou contamination of commercially grown mushrooms. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 51, 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO/WHO. (2008). Microbiological hazards in fresh leafy vegetables and herbs. In Microbial risk assessment series 14. Rome, Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  11. Garcia, B. C. B., Dimasupil, M. A. Z., Vital, P. G., Widmer, K. W., & Rivera, W. L. (2015). Fecal contamination in irrigation water and microbial quality of vegetable primary production in urban farms of Metro Manila, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 50, 734–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goodburn, C., & Wallace, C. A. (2013). The microbiological efficacy of decontamination methodologies for fresh produce: A review. Food Control, 32, 418–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ingham, S. C., Fanslau, M. A., Engel, R. A., Breuer, J. R., Breuer, J. E., Wright, T. H., et al. (2005). Evaluation of fertilization-to-planting and fertilization-to-harvest intervals for safe use of noncomposted bovine manure in Wisconsin vegetable production. Journal of Food Protection, 68, 1134–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Isaacs, S., Aramini, J., Ciebin, B., Farrar, J., Ahmed, R., Middleton, D., et al. (2005). An international outbreak of salmonellosis associated with raw almonds contaminated with a rare phage type of Salmonella Enteritidis. Journal of Food Protection, 68, 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Itoh, Y., Sugita-Konishi, Y., Kasuga, F., Iwaki, M., Hara-Kudo, Y., Saito, N., et al. (1998). Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 present in radish sprouts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64, 1532–1535.Google Scholar
  16. Jacxsens, L., Luning, P., Van der Vorst, J., Devlieghere, F., Leemans, R., & Uyttendaele, M. (2010). Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety—The case study of fresh produce supply chain. Food Research International, 43, 1925–1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lasobras, J., Dellunde, J., Jofre, J., & Lucena, F. (1999). Occurrence and levels of phages proposed as surrogate indicators of enteric viruses in different types of sludges. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 86, 723–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Malorny, B., Hoorfar, J., Bunge, C., & Helmuth, R. (2003). Multicenter validation of the analytical accuracy of Salmonella PCR: Towards an international standard. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 290–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mead, P., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L., Bresee, J., Shapiro, C., et al. (1999). Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(5), 607–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nguyen-the, C., & Carlin, F. (1994). The microbiology of minimally processed fresh fruits and vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 34, 371–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rangel, J. M., Sparling, P. H., Crowe, C., Griffin, P. M., & Swerdlow, D. L. (2005). Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbrealks, United States 1982–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 603–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sagoo, S., Little, C., Ward, L., Gillespie, I., & Mitchell, R. (2003). Microbiological study of ready-to-eat salad vegetables from retail establishments uncovers a national outbreak of salmonellosis. Journal of Food Protection, 66, 403–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Singh, B., Singh, P., Verma, A., Agrawal, S., Babu, N., Chandra, M., et al. (2006). A study on prevalence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella in water sprinkled on fresh vegetables in Bareilly, Moradabad, and Kanpur (northern Indian cities). Journal of Public Health, 14, 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Takahashi, H., Kimura, B., Tanaka, Y., Sinozaki, J., Suda, T., & Fujii, T. (2009). Real-time PCR and enrichment culture for sensitive detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 79, 124–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vital, P. G., Dimasuay, K. G. B., Widmer, K. W., & Rivera, W. L. (2014). Microbiological quality of fresh produce from open air markets and supermarkets in the Philippines. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wiley, R. C. (Ed.). (1994). Preservation methods for minimally processed refrigerated fruits and vegetables. In Minimally processed refrigerated fruits & vegetables (pp. 66–134). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Zhuang, R., Beuchat, L., & Angulo, F. (1995). Fate of Salmonella Montevideo on and in raw tomatoes as affected by temperature and treatment with chlorine. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61, 2127–2131.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierangeli G. Vital
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Windell L. Rivera
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joseth Jermaine M. Abello
    • 1
  • Jude Christian E. Francisco
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biology, College of ScienceUniversity of the Philippines DilimanQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Natural Sciences Research InstituteUniversity of the Philippines DilimanQuezon CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations