Optimization and Modeling of Tetracycline Removal from Wastewater by Three-Dimensional Electrochemical System: Application of Response Surface Methodology and Least Squares Support Vector Machine

  • Maryam Foroughi
  • Ali Reza Rahmani
  • Ghorban Asgari
  • Davood Nematollahi
  • Kaan Yetilmezsoy
  • Mohammad Reza SamarghandiEmail author


A three-dimensional electrochemical system was employed as an advanced treatment technology for treatment of tetracycline-containing wastewater. An initial tetracycline concentration of 20.17–100.23 mg/L, pH range of 2.43–9.18, and current density of 1.03–15.72 mA/cm2 were implemented for the optimization and modeling of the process within the framework of a three-factor, five-level Box–Wilson central composite design-based response surface methodology and least squares support vector machine. The results of statistics corroborated that three main effective factors and reactor performance were very well described by the second-order polynomial equation (coefficient of determination = 0.94, mean square error = 0.0042, root mean square error = 0.065, average absolute deviation = 2.51, and mean absolute error = 0.037). Under the optimal conditions introduced by the desirability function approach, 90.42 (± 2.3)%, 49.91 ± (8.4)% and 28.80 ± (16.70)% of tetracycline, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon could be removed using the three-dimensional electrochemical process from wastewater. The findings of this study demonstrated that the three-dimensional electrochemical system was as an effective, simple, and economic process compared to other electrochemical systems that have been recently used for antibiotics removal and could be considered as a promising technology for further investigations.


Antibiotic Tetracycline Central composite design Three-dimensional electrochemical system Support vector machine Modeling 



The authors are grateful to Dr. Mohamad Hossein Ahmadi Azqhandi (Faculty of Gas and Petroleum, Yasouj University, Iran) for his valuable comments in LS-SVM analyses.

Funding Information

This project was financed by Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran (Grant number 9412046696).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of HealthTorbat Heydariyeh University of Medical SciencesTorbat HeydariyehIran
  2. 2.Health Sciences Research CenterTorbat Heydariyeh University of Medical SciencesTorbat HeydariyehIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering & Research Centre for Health Sciences, School of Public HealthHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran
  4. 4.Social Determinants of Health Research Center (SDHRC), Faculty of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health EngineeringHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran
  5. 5.Faculty of ChemistryBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamadanIran
  6. 6.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil EngineeringYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  7. 7.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of HealthHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran

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