Spatial Modeling of Mean Annual Temperature in Iran: Comparing Cokriging and Geographically Weighted Regression

  • Younes KhosraviEmail author
  • Saeed Balyani


Mapping spatial distribution of climatological parameters with a good degree of accuracy is crucial in environmental modeling and planning. Nowadays, there are various models to estimate and predict spatial variables in an area but some such as cokriging and geographically weighted regression (GWR) have got more attention from experts in this field. The objectives of this study are to evaluate and compare GWR with ordinary cokriging (OCK) techniques for estimating the mean annual air temperature (MAT) of Iran using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data and auxiliary variables (e.g., longitude, latitude and altitude). The MAT-gridded data for Iran was collected in pixels during the time interval of 1987–2015 from the ERA-Interim re-analysis version of ECMWF. Validation results indicate that cokriging model with latitude and altitude for estimating MAT has the lowest MAE (0.0155), MBE (0.00085), RMSE (0.0251), and the highest NS (0.9999) in relation to other cokriging methods. On the other hand, GWR with altitude has better results than those of GWR with other auxiliary variables because of its MAE (0.1271), MBE (0.0124), RMSE (0.1760), and NS (0.9969). By comparing two mentioned methods, cokriging with latitude and altitude has provided the best performance in relation to GWR for prediction of MAT in Iran. To obtain accurate estimation of the spatial distribution of MAT, local residuals were analyzed. Results concluded that residuals of the OCK model have high spatial adaptations between the observed and predicted MAT data compared to the GWR model. Hence, OCK was a relatively optimum method for the estimation of MAT compared with GWR.


Geographically weighted regression Ordinary cokriging Mean annual air temperature Cross validation Mapping 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Science Research Laboratory-Remote Sensing, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Geographical ScienceUniversity of KharazmiTehranIran

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