Residual behavior and risk assessment of butralin in peanut fields

  • Lihua Yang
  • Xiangxiang Song
  • Xuguo Zhou
  • Yuzhou Zhou
  • Yaoyu ZhouEmail author
  • Daoxin GongEmail author
  • Haifeng LuoEmail author
  • Yaocheng Deng
  • Danxin Yang
  • Ling Chen


Butralin is widely used to control single-leaf weeds and some dicotyledons. The application of butralin in the environment may cause residue beyond regulation criteria and residual toxicity. Therefore, it is important to detect and supervise the dissipation behavior of butralin in edible raw food and in the environment. The aim of this study was to monitor butralin in peanuts and soil under farmland conditions and examine the likely dietary risk assessment of butralin for Chinese people on the basis of residual concentrations. A method for the analysis of butralin residue and its dissipation in peanut plants and soil under field conditions was investigated. The results show that an analytical method for the quantization of butralin in peanuts and soil utilizing gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was developed. Standard recovery experiments using three different butralin spiking levels of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg kg−1 in different samples (i.e., peanut kernels, shell, seedling, stalk, and soil) were conducted. The recoveries of butralin from all matrices ranged from 86 to 108% with relative standard deviations from 3 to 6% (n = 5). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg kg−1. After storage at − 20 °C for 365 days, the degradation rate of residues of butralin in peanut kernels was less than 30%, which met the storage stability test criteria for pesticide residues in stored commodities of plant origin. The dissipation half-lives of butralin ranged from 4.2 to 6.6 days and 4.6 to 6.6 days in peanut seedlings and soil, respectively, in farmland ecosystems. At the normal harvest time, the final residue concentrations of butralin in peanuts and soil were all below the LOQ. The final total risk quotient (RQ) values were much lower than RQ = 100%, which indicated that the long-run fitness risk associated with butralin residue in different groups of registered crops is correspondingly low for people in China. The current research results could offer guidance for the rational use of butralin and provide data support for the building of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China.


Butralin Peanut Degradation Residue Half-life Risk assessment 


Funding information

The study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51709103), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (2018JJ3242), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018 M630901), and the Agricultural Pesticide Residue Project of the Ministry of Agriculture (18162130109237117).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Resources and EnvironmentHunan Agricultural UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.College of Engineering, Hunan Agricultural UniversityChangshaChina
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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