Study of simultaneous bioremediation of mixed reactive dyes and Cr(VI) containing wastewater through designed experiments

  • Saurabh Mishra
  • Abhijit MaitiEmail author


Xenobiotic azo dyes and chromate (Cr(VI)) containing industrial wastewaters cause severe ecological problems. The present bioremediation study aims to treat wastewater containing Cr(VI) ions and mixed azo dyes (reactive red 21 (RR21) and reactive orange 16 (RO16)) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23N1. The process optimization of bioremediation is investigated using statistical designed experimental tool of response surface methodology. The ANOVA analysis is performed to evaluate optimal biodecolourization condition. This study shows that the amount of yeast extract has major influence on biodecolourization performance. The decolourization of individual RO16 and RR21 dye in presence of 60 mg/L of Cr(VI) ions is obtained as 88.5 ± 0.8 and 92.3 ± 0.7% for 100 and 150 mg/L initial dye concentrations, respectively. In this study, bacteria exhibit high Cr(VI) removal potential of ~ 99.1% against initial Cr(VI) concentration of 150 mg/L. The negative influence of Cr(VI) ions on biodecolourization is only noticed when initial Cr(VI) concentration in wastewater is found above 150 mg/L. The results reveal that bacteria studied here could be used to biodecolourize dyes even in high saline condition (> 6000 mg/L). The reduction of ~ 80% in American Dye Manufacturers Institute colour index value is achieved for mixed dyes solution containing 50 mg/L of both RR21 and RO16 dyes along with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) ions. Significant changes in the UV-visible and ATR-FTIR spectra are observed in treated water that confirms the biodegradation of dyes. Toxicity study with Vigna radiata reveals the non-toxicity of degraded metabolites and strain 23N1 is recommended as an effective bioremediation agent.


Process optimization Bioremediation Reactive dyes Organic carbon Chromate removal Mixed dyes removal 


Funding information

Authors acknowledge the financial support obtained from Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India, for the student scholarship and partial research funding support through a project (IMPRINT scheme, Project number: 6125) funded by MHRD and Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, Government of India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no potential conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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ESM 1 (DOCX 1848 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Polymer and Process EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur CampusSaharanpurIndia

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