Determination of the urbanization and changes in open-green spaces in Nevsehir city through remote sensing

  • Meliha AklibasindaEmail author
  • Asli Ozdarici Ok


The physical texture of cities is comprised of built-up spaces, open-green spaces, and transportation arteries. Urbanization is a dynamic that compose of each of the factors above in a fair proportion to human beings and nature. On the other hand, due to the rapid increase in urban population, urbanization has become a concept that poses serious problems for cities in the last decades and this leads a pressure on open-green spaces in urban areas. Open-green spaces have a great importance in improving urban life conditions and balancing the destroyed relations between humans and environment. For this reason, the sustainability of urban open-green spaces cannot be ignored in the planning studies. In this study, the change in the urban texture in Nevsehir (Turkey) was evaluated in a 10-year period (2004–2014) through the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). Through the use of satellite images with high ground sample distance—QuickBird (60 cm) (2004) and Worlview-2 (50 cm) (2014)—the direction of urban expansion and changes which occurred in urban open-green spaces and urban development areas were examined in detail at the whole city and district scales. Analyses consist of satellite image classification, plant index production, and GIS-based analyses methods. According to the results, it was determined that from 2004 to 2014, the 23.28% decrease in urban open-green spaces was detected in Nevsehir city. It was observed that the city expands towards the north-east, south-west, and west. It was indicated that there is a serious increase in built-up areas especially at the north-east part of the city (107.11%). Thus, a significant decrease has happened in the amount of urban open-green spaces in this area.


Urban Open-green space Built-up area Remote sensing Geographical information systems 



Authors would like to express gratitude to the Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University for the support in this project and also Assoc. Prof. Ali Ozgun OK (Hacettepe University, Geomatics Engineering Department) for the collection of ground control points required for the orthorectification process.

Funding information

This study was conducted in the scope of the research project (No. NEÜBAP15/2F12) supported by the Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University.


  1. Anonymous. (2018). Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli Üniversitesi İdare Faaliyet Raporu. Accessed 11 February 2019.
  2. Anonymous. (2019). T.C. Nevşehir Valiliği. Accessed 07 February 2019.
  3. Arnberger, A. (2012). Urban densification and recreational quality of public urban green spaces - a viennese case study. Sustainability, 4(4), 703–720. Scholar
  4. Arslan, H., Şıkoğlu, E, & Karadoğan, S. (2017). Nevşehir yakın çevresinin jeolojik-jeomorfolojik özellikleri ve kentleşmeye etkileri. International Symposium on Geomorphology, Proceedings Book, 264-273, 12-14 October, Elazığ/Türkiye.Google Scholar
  5. Atasoy, M. (2018). Monitoring the urban green spaces and landscape fragmentation using remote sensing: a case study in Osmaniye, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(12), 713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badiu, D. L., Ioja, C. I., Patroescu, M., Breuste, J., Artmann, M., Nita, M. R., Gradinaru, S. R., Hossu, C. A., & Onose, D. A. (2016). Is urban green space per capita a valuable target to achieve cities’ sustainability goals? Romania as a case study. Ecological Indicators, 70, 53–66. Scholar
  7. Bagheri, Z., Nadoushan, M. A., & Abari, M. F. (2017). Evaluation the effect of green space on air pollution dispersion using satellite images and landscape metrics: a case study of Isfahan City. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 26(12A), 520–530.Google Scholar
  8. Doygun, H., & Ilter, A. A. (2007). Investigating adequacy of existing and proposed active green spaces in Kahramanmaras city. Ekoloji, 17(65), 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ersoy, E., Jorgensen, A., & Warren, P. H. (2015). Measuring the spatial structure of urban land uses: the case of Sheffield, UK. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 16(1), 393–401.Google Scholar
  10. Fan, P. L., Xu, L. H., Yue, W. Z., & Chen, J. Q. (2017). Accessibility of public urban green space in an urban periphery: the case of Shanghai. Landscape and Urban Planning, 165, 177–192. Scholar
  11. Fan, X., Liu, J., Chen, J., Zhao, L., Hong, W., Hong, T., & Lin, H. (2018). Effects of landscape changes on ecosystem services: a case study in Nanping, Northern Fujian Province, China. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 27(5A), 3561–3570.Google Scholar
  12. Germann-Chiari, C., & Seeland, K. (2004). Are urban green spaces optimally distributed to act as places for social integration? Results of a geographical information system (GIS) approach for urban forestry research. Forest Policy and Economics, 6(1), 3–13. Scholar
  13. Goncalves, A., Ribeiro, A. C., Maia, F., Nunes, L., & Feliciano, M. (2019). Influence of green spaces on outdoors thermal comfort-structured experiment in a mediterranean climate. Climate, 7(2), 20. Scholar
  14. Gül, A., & Küçük, V. (2001). Kentsel açık-yeşil alanlar ve Isparta kenti örneğinde irdelenmesi. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 2(A), 27–48.Google Scholar
  15. Hofmann, P., Strobl, J., & Nazarkulova, A. (2011). Mapping green spaces in Bishkek—how reliable can spatial analysis be? Remote Sensing, 3, 1088–1103. Scholar
  16. Home, R., Hunziker, M., & Bauer, N. (2012). Psychosocial outcomes as motivations for visiting nearby urban green spaces. Leisure Sciences, 34(4), 350–365. Scholar
  17. Huang, C. H., Yang, J., Lu, H., Huang, H. B., & Yu, L. (2017). Green spaces as an indicator of urban health: evaluating its changes in 28 mega-cities. Remote Sensing, 9(12), 1266. Scholar
  18. Işık, S. (2005). Türkiye’de Kentleşme ve Kentleşme Modelleri (urbanisation and urbanisation models in Turkey). Ege Coğrafya Dergisi (Aegean Geographical Journal), 14, 57–71.Google Scholar
  19. Jennings, V., & Bamkole, O. (2019). The relationship between social cohesion and urban green space: an avenue for health promotion. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(3), 452. Scholar
  20. Kabisch, N., & Haase, D. (2014). Green justice or just green? Provision of urban green spaces in Berlin, Germany. Landscape and Urban Planning, 122, 129–139. Scholar
  21. Karadağ, A. (2009). Kentsel ekoloji: kentsel çevre analizlerinde coğrafi yaklaşım. Ege Coğrafya Dergisi, 18(1–2), 31–47.Google Scholar
  22. Keleş, R. (1998). Kentbilim Terimleri Sözlüğü. Ankara: İmge Yayıncılık.Google Scholar
  23. Klemm, W., Heusinkveld, B. G., Lenzholzer, S., Jacobs, M. H., & Van Hove, B. (2015). Psychological and physical impact of urban green spaces on outdoor thermal comfort during summertime in The Netherlands. Building and Environment, 83, 120–128. Scholar
  24. Kolcsar, R. A., & Szilassi, P. (2018). Assessing accessibility of urban green spaces based on isochrone maps and street resolution population data through the example of Zalaegerszeg, Hungary. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 31–36. Scholar
  25. Lee, A. C. K., Jordan, H. C., & Horsley, J. (2015). Value of urban green spaces in promoting healthy living and wellbeing: prospects for planning. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 8, 131–137. Scholar
  26. Lillesand, M., Kiefer, R. W., & Chipman, J. W. (2004). Remote sensing and image interpretation (5th ed. p.763). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Lindholst, A. C., Caspersen, O. H., & Van den Bosch, C. C. K. (2015). Methods for mapping recreational and social values in urban green spaces in the nordic countries and their comparative merits for urban planning. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism-Research Planning and Management, 12, 71–81. Scholar
  28. Masoudi, M., & Tan, P. Y. (2019). Multi-year comparison of the effects of spatial pattern of urban green spaces on urban land surface temperature. Landscape and Urban Planning, 184, 44–58. Scholar
  29. Matos, P., Vieira, J., Rocha, B., Branquinho, C., & Pinho, P. (2019). Modeling the provision of air-quality regulation ecosystem service provided by urban green spaces using lichens as ecological indicators. Science of the Total Environment, 665, 521–530. Scholar
  30. Nutsford, D., Pearson, A. L., & Kingham, S. (2015). An ecological study investigating the association between access to urban green space and mental health. Public Health, 127(11), 1005–1011. Scholar
  31. Odindi, J. O., & Mhangara, P. (2012). Green spaces trends in the city of Port Elizabeth from 1990 to 2000 using remote sensing. International Journal of Environmental Research, 6(3), 653–662. Scholar
  32. Packe, S. R., & Aldunce, I. M. F. (2010). Distribution, extent and accessibility of green spaces in Santiago de Chile. Eure-Revista Latinoamericana De Estudios Urbano Regionales, 36(109), 89–110.Google Scholar
  33. Rafiee, R., Mahiny, A. S., & Khorasani, N. (2009). Assessment of changes in urban green spaces of Mashad city using satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 11, 431–438. Scholar
  34. Richardson, E. A., & Mitchell, R. (2010). Gender differences in relationships between urban green space and health in the United Kingdom. Social Science & Medicine, 71(3), 568–575. Scholar
  35. Santos, T., Tenedorio, J. A., & Goncalves, J. A. (2016). Quantifying the city’s green area potential gain using remote sensing data. Sustainability, 8(12), 1247. Scholar
  36. Sun, C., Lin, T., Zhao, Q., Li, X., Ye, H., Zhang, G., Liu, X., & Zhao, Y. (2019). Spatial pattern of urban green spaces in a long-term compact urbanization process—a case study in China. Ecological Indicators, 96, 111–119. Scholar
  37. Tecim, V. (2008). Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri. 354 s., Renk Form Ofset Matbaacılık, Ankara. (In Turkish)Google Scholar
  38. TÜİK. (2019). Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Accessed 07 February 2019.
  39. Van den Bosch, M. A., Mudu, P., Uscila, V., Barrdahl, M., Kulinkina, A., Staatsen, B., Swart, W., Kruize, H., Zurlyte, I., & Egorov, A. I. (2016). Development of an urban green space indicator and the public health rationale. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 44(2), 159–167. Scholar
  40. Vatseva, R., Kopecka, M., Otahel, J., Rosina, K., Kitev, A., Genchev, S. (2016). Mapping urban green spaces based on remote sensing data: case studies in Bulgaria and Slovakia. Proceedings, 6th International Conference on Cartography and GIS, pp 569- 578, 13-17 June 2016, Albena, Bulgaria.Google Scholar
  41. Wu, J. (2014). Urban ecology and sustainability: the state-of-the-science and future directions. Landscape and Urban Planning, 125, 209–222. Scholar
  42. Xu, C., Haase, D., & Pauleit, S. (2018). The impact of different urban dynamics on green space availability: a multiple scenario modeling approach for the region of Munich, Germany. Ecological Indicators, 93, 1–12. Scholar
  43. Yang, J., Sun, J., Ge, Q. S., & Li, X. M. (2017). Assessing the impacts of urbanization-associated green space on urban land surface temperature: a case study of Dalian, China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 22, 1–10. Scholar
  44. Zhang, H., Chen, B., Sun, Z., & Bao, Z. Y. (2013). Landscape perception and recreation needs in urban green space in Fuyang, Hangzhou, China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12(1), 44–52. Scholar
  45. Zhu, C. Y., Ji, P., & Li, S. H. (2017). Effects of urban green belts on the air temperature, humidity and air quality. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 25(1), 39–55. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Landscape ArchitectureNevsehir Haci Bektas Veli UniversityNevsehirTurkey
  2. 2.College of Land Registry, Department of Real Estate and Property ManagementAnkara Haci Bayram Veli UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations