Advertisement

Temporal variations of trace metals and a metalloid in temperate estuarine mangrove sediments

  • Ujwal Bastakoti
  • John Robertson
  • Carine Bourgeois
  • Cyril Marchand
  • Andrea C. AlfaroEmail author
Article
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Mangrove sediments are strong modulators of organic matter (OM) content and pollutant dynamics, acting both as sinks and sources of these components. This study aimed to assess temporal dynamics of OM within temperate mangrove sediments and their ability to sequester pollutants. Specifically, levels of trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) and a metalloid (As) were examined within mangrove and mudflat sediments located in a high-energy environment in Mangawhai Harbour Estuary, northern New Zealand. Sediment cores were collected from a mangrove stand and adjacent mudflats at three sediment depths during different months over a year. Variations in OM and elements were compared to rainfall and temperature patterns observed during the sampling period. All element concentrations, except for those of As, were significantly higher in mangrove compared to mudflat sediments during the entire sampling period. This is consistent with the well-reported ability of mangroves to trap suspended particles and OM. In addition, we observed a decreasing trend in trace metal concentrations with increasing sediment depth within mangrove habitat, which correlated well with decreasing OM content. Our results also suggested that most elements had different, but significant, temporal variations throughout the year, especially in mangrove sediments. Overall, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in mangrove sediments increased during summer, whereas maximum levels of Fe and OM were observed in winter. This temporal pattern was determined to be related to OM and redox cycling as a result of changes in effluent input rates and physical/chemical environments during different seasons.

Keywords

Trace metals Organic matter Temporal variations Estuarine sediments Temperate estuary Mangrove ecosystems 

Notes

References

  1. Abrahim, G. M. S., & Parker, R. J. (2008). Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki estuary, Auckland, New Zealand [conference paper]. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 136(1–3), 227–238.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9678-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aggett, J., & Simpson, J. D. (1986). Copper, chromium, and lead in manukau harbour sediments. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 20(4), 661–663.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1986.9516186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alagarsamy, R. (2006). Distribution and seasonal variation of trace metals in surface sediments of the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India, Estuarine. Coastal and Shelf Science, 67(1–2), 333–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alfaro, A. C. (2010). Effects of mangrove removal on benthic communities and sediment characteristics at Mangawhai harbour, northern New Zealand. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67(6), 1087–1104.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alongi, D. M. (1988). Bacterial productivity and microbial biomass in tropical mangrove sediments. Microbial Ecology, 15(1), 59–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alongi, D. (2009). The energetics of mangrove forests. Springer Science & Business Media.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4271-3.
  7. Alongi, D. M., Tirendi, F., & Clough, B. F. (2000). Below-ground decomposition of organic matter in forests of the mangroves Rhizophora stylosa and Avicennia marina along the arid coast of Western Australia. Aquatic Botany, 68(2), 97–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(00)00110-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avnimelech, Y., Ritvo, G., Meijer, L. E., & Kochba, M. (2001). Water content, organic carbon and dry bulk density in flooded sediments. Aquacultural Engineering, 25(1), 25–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8609(01)00068-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barreiro, R., Real, C., & Carballeira, A. (1994). Heavy-metal horizontal distribution in surface sediments from a small estuary (Pontedeume, Spain). Science of the Total Environment, 154(1), 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bastakoti, U., Robertson, J., & Alfaro, A. C. (2018). Spatial variation of heavy metals in sediments within a temperate mangrove ecosystem in northern New Zealand. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 135, 790–800.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.08.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernini, E., da Silva, M. A., Carmo, T., & Cuzzuol, G. R. (2010). Spatial and temporal variation of the nutrients in the sediment and leaves of two Brazilian mangrove species and their role in the retention of environmental heavy metals. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 22(3), 177–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bilgili, M. S., Demir, A., & Özkaya, B. (2007). Influence of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of solid wastes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 143(1–2), 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Birch, G., Nath, B., & Chaudhuri, P. (2015). Effectiveness of remediation of metal-contaminated mangrove sediments (Sydney estuary, Australia). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(8), 6185–6197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bouillon, S., Borges, A. V., Castañeda-Moya, E., Diele, K., Dittmar, T., Duke, N. C., Kristensen, E., Lee, S. Y., Marchand, C., Middelburg, J. J., Rivera-Monroy, V. H., Smith III, T. J., & Twilley, R. R. (2008). Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22(2).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GB003052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bourgeois, C., Alfaro, A. C., Dencer-Brown, A., Duprey, J. L., Desnues, A., & Marchand, C. (2019a). Stocks and soil-plant transfer of macro-nutrients and trace metals in temperate New Zealand estuarine mangroves. Plant and Soil, 436(1–2), 565–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourgeois, C., Alfaro, A. C., Leopold, A., Andréoli, R., Bisson, E., Desnues, A., Duprey, J. L., & Marchand, C. (2019b). Sedimentary and elemental dynamics as a function of the elevation profile in a semi-arid mangrove toposequence. Catena, 173, 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burone, L., Muniz, P., Pires-Vanin, A. M. S., & Rodrigues, M. (2003). Spatial distribution of organic matter in the surface sediments of Ubatuba Bay (southeastern–Brazil). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 75(1), 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chappell, P.R. (2013). The climate and weather of Northland. NIWA Science and Technology Series (Vol 59, pp 40). Retrieved 04 Oct 2019 from https://www.nrc.govt.nz/resource-library-summary/research-and-reports/climate-and-weather/the-climate-and-weather-ofnorthland/
  19. Clark, M. W., McConchie, D., Lewis, D. W., & Saenger, P. (1998). Redox stratification and heavy metal partitioning in Avicennia-dominated mangrove sediments: A geochemical model. Chemical Geology, 149(3–4), 147–171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(98)00034-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Department of Land & Survey NZ (1980). NZMS 290 Sheet R08109. New Zealand land Inventory. Retrieved 10 Nov 2019 from https://whangarei.recollect.co.nz/nodes/view/166
  21. Desmond, M., Hepburn, C. & McLeod, R. (2012). Metal concentrations within the sediments of Hawksbury lagoon/Matainaka. Department of Marine Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Retrieved 19 Jul 2017 http://www.hawksburylagoon.org.nz.
  22. Du Laing, G., Rinklebe, J., Vandecasteele, B., Meers, E., & Tack, F. M. G. (2009). Trace metal behaviour in estuarine and riverine floodplain soils and sediments: A review. Science of the Total Environment, 407(13), 3972–3985.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.07.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Development Core Team. (2017). A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. https://www.r-project.org/.
  24. Eggleton, J., & Thomas, K. V. (2004). A review of factors affecting the release and bioavailability of contaminants during sediment disturbance events. Environment International, 30(7), 973–980.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2004.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feller, I. C., Friess, D. A., Krauss, K. W., & Lewis, R. R. (2017). The state of the world’s mangroves in the 21st century under climate change. Hydrobiologia, 803(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feng, J., Zhu, X., Wu, H., Ning, C., & Lin, G. (2017). Distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of a typical restored mangrove–aquaculture wetland in Shenzhen, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 124(2), 1033–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Förstner, U., & Wittmann, G. T. (1981). Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Springer Science & Business Media.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69385-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Furukawa, K., & Wolanski, E. (1996). Sedimentation in mangrove forests. Mangroves and Salt Marshes, 1(1), 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glasby, G. P., Stoppers, P., Walter, P., Davis, K. R., & Renner, R. M. (1988). Heavy-metal pollution in Manukau and Waitemata harbours, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 22(4), 595–611.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1988.9516329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gray, C. W., McLaren, R. G., & Roberts, A. H. (2003). Atmospheric accessions of heavy metals to some New Zealand pastoral soils. Science of the Total Environment, 305(1–3), 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gritcan, I., Duxbury, M., Leuzinger, S., & Alfaro, A. C. (2016). Leaf stable isotope and nutrient status of temperate mangroves as ecological indicators to assess anthropogenic activity and recovery from eutrophication. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hamilton, S. E., & Casey, D. (2016). Creation of a high spatio-temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC-21). Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25(6), 729–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harbison, P. (1986). Mangrove muds—A sink and a source for trace metals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 17(6), 246–250.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(86)90057-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heiri, O., Lotter, A. F., & Lemcke, G. (2001). Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: Reproducibility and comparability of results. Journal of Paleolimnology, 25(1), 101–110.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008119611481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hulbert, C. P. (2014). Holocene habitat analysis and organism-sediment interactions at Mangawhai estuary, North Island, New Zealand (MSc thesis). University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  36. Kristensen, E., Flindt, M. R., Ulomi, S., Borges, A. V., Abril, G., & Bouillon, S. (2008). Emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by sediments and open waters in two Tanzanian mangrove forests. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 370, 53–67.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lacerda, L. D. (1998). Trace metals biogeochemistry and diffuse pollution in mangrove ecosystems. ISME Mangrove Ecosystems Occasional Papers, 2, 1–61.Google Scholar
  38. Lacerda, L. D., Martinelli, L. A., Rezende, C. E., Mozeto, A. A., Ovalle, A. R. C., Victoria, R. L., Silva, C. A. R., & Nogueira, F. B. (1988). The fate of trace metals in suspended matter in a mangrove creek during a tidal cycle. Science of the Total Environment, 75(2–3), 169–180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(88)90030-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lau, S. S. S., & Chu, L. M. (1999). Contaminant release from sediments in a coastal wetland. Water Research, 33(4), 909–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li, R., Qiu, G. Y., Chai, M., Shen, X., & Zan, Q. (2019). Effects of conversion of mangroves into gei Wai ponds on accumulation, speciation and risk of heavy metals in intertidal sediments. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 41(1), 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lindsay, P. (2014). The hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and inferred sediment dynamics of Mangawhai estuary, northland (MSc thesis). University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  42. Maher, D. T., Santos, I. R., Golsby-Smith, L., Gleeson, J., & Eyre, B. D. (2013). Groundwater-derived dissolved inorganic and organic carbon exports from a mangrove tidal creek: The missing mangrove carbon sink? Limnology and Oceanography, 58(2), 475–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mangawhai Community Wastewater Scheme (2015). MCWWS community advisory panel. Final Report. Kaipara District. Retrieved from https://www.kaipara.govt.nz/site/kaiparadistrictcouncil/files/MCWWS%20pages/A-Z%20of%20documents/MCWWS%20Community%20Advisory%20Panel%20Final%20Report%20July%202015.pdf.
  44. Marchand, C., Lallier-Vergès, E., Baltzer, F., Albéric, P., Cossa, D., & Baillif, P. (2006). Heavy metals distribution in mangrove sediments along the mobile coastline of French Guiana. Marine Chemistry, 98(1), 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2005.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marchand, C., Allenbach, M., & Lallier-Vergès, E. (2011). Relationships between heavy metals distribution and organic matter cycling in mangrove sediments (Conception Bay, New Caledonia). Geoderma, 160(3–4), 444–456.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.10.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marchand, C., Fernandez, J. M., Moreton, B., Landi, L., Lallier-Vergès, E., & Baltzer, F. (2012). The partitioning of transitional metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr) in mangrove sediments downstream of a ferralitized ultramafic watershed (New Caledonia). Chemical Geology, 300, 70–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Marchand, C., Fernandez, J. M., & Moreton, B. (2016). Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia). Science of the Total Environment, 562, 216–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Martin, T. D., Creed, J.T. & Brockhoff, C.A. (1991). Sample preparation procedure for spectrochemical determination of total recoverable elements. Method 200.2, revision 2.8. Environmental monitoring systems laboratory Office of Research and Development US. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268.Google Scholar
  49. Marx, S. K., Kamber, B. S., & McGowan, H. A. (2008). Scavenging of atmospheric trace metal pollutants by mineral dusts: Inter-regional transport of Australian trace metal pollution to New Zealand. Atmospheric Environment, 42(10), 2460–2478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McCabe, P., Healy, T. R., & Nelson, C. S. (1985). Mangawhai Harbour and the development of its dual inlet system. In 1985 Australasian Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering (p. 518). Institution of Engineers, Australia.Google Scholar
  51. Mirlean, N., Baisch, P., Travassos, M. P., & Nassar, C. (2011). Calcareous algae bioclast contribution to sediment enrichment by arsenic on the Brazilian subtropical coast. Geo-Marine Letters, 31(1), 65–73.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-010-0215-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Morrisey, D., Beard, C., Morrison, M., Craggs, R., & Lowe, M. (2007). The New Zealand mangrove: Review of the current state of knowledge. Auckland Regional Council Technical Publication, 325.Google Scholar
  53. Nelson, C. H., & Lamothe, P. J. (1993). Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain. Estuaries, 16(3), 496–511.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1352597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. NIWA. (2014). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 09 May 2018 from https://www.niwa.co.nz/climate/summaries/monthly/climate-summary-for-december-2014.
  55. NIWA. (2019). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 04 Oct 2019 from https://www.niwa.co.nz/education-and-training/schools/resources/climate/overview/map_north.
  56. Nóbrega, G. N., Ferreira, T. O., Romero, R. E., Marques, A. G. B., & Otero, X. L. (2013). Iron and sulfur geochemistry in semi-arid mangrove soils (Ceará, Brazil) in relation to seasonal changes and shrimp farming effluents. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(9), 7393–7407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Noël, V., Morin, G., Juillot, F., Marchand, C., Brest, J., Bargar, J. R., Muñoz, M., Marakovic, G., Ardo, S., & Brown Jr., G. E. (2015). Ni cycling in mangrove sediments from New Caledonia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 169, 82–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Noël, V., Juillot, F., Morin, G., Marchand, C., Ona-Nguema, G., Viollier, E., Prévot, F., Dublet, G., Maillot, F., Delbes, L., & Marakovic, G. (2017). Oxidation of Ni-rich mangrove sediments after isolation from the sea (Dumbea Bay, New Caledonia): Fe and Ni behavior and environmental implications. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 1(8), 455–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nwadinigwe, C. A., Udo, G. J., & Nwadinigwe, A. O. (2014). Seasonal variations of heavy metals concentrations in sediment samples around major tributaries in Ibeno coastal area, Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 3(11), 254–265.Google Scholar
  60. Ray, A. K., Tripathy, S. C., Patra, S., & Sarma, V. V. (2006). Assessment of Godavari estuarine mangrove ecosystem through trace metal studies [conference paper]. Environment International, 32(2), 219–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.08.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sanders, C. J., Santos, I. R., Maher, D. T., Sadat-Noori, M., Schnetger, B., & Brumsack, H. J. (2015). Dissolved iron exports from an estuary surrounded by coastal wetlands: Can small estuaries be a significant source of Fe to the ocean? Marine Chemistry, 176, 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sandilyan, S., & Kathiresan, K. (2012). Mangrove conservation: A global perspective. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21(14), 3523–3542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sandilyan, S., & Kathiresan, K. (2014). Decline of mangroves—a threat of heavy metal poisoning in Asia. Ocean and Coastal Management, 102, 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Silva, C. A. R., Lacerda, L. D., & Rezende, C. E. (1990). Metals reservoir in a red mangrove forest. Biotropica, 22, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Singh, A. K., Hasnain, S. I., & Banerjee, D. K. (1999). Grain size and geochemical partitioning of heavy metals in sediments of the Damodar River—A tributary of the lower ganga, India. Environmental Geology, 39(1), 90–98.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Spalding, M., Kainuma, M., & Collins, L. (2010). World atlas of mangroves. A collaborative project of ITTO, ISME, FAO, UNEP-WCMC. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  67. Sundaramanickam, A., Shanmugam, N., Cholan, S., Kumaresan, S., Madeswaran, P., & Balasubramanian, T. (2016). Spatial variability of heavy metals in estuarine, mangrove and coastal ecosystems along Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India. Environmental Pollution, 218, 186–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.07.048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tam, N. F. Y., & Wong, Y. S. (1995). Spatial and temporal variations of heavy metal contamination in sediments of a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31(4–12), 254–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tam, N. F. Y., & Wong, Y. S. (1996). Retention and distribution of heavy metals in mangrove soils receiving wastewater. Environmental Pollution, 94(3), 283–291.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(96)00115-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tam, N. F. Y., & Wong, Y. S. (1998). Variations of soil nutrient and organic matter content in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 103(1–4), 245–261.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004925700931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tam, N. F. Y., & Wong, Y. S. (2000). Spatial variation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps. Environmental Pollution, 110(2), 195–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00310-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tam, N. F. Y., & Yao, M. W. Y. (1998). Normalisation and heavy metal contamination in mangrove sediments. Science of the Total Environment, 216(1–2), 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thanh-Nho, N., Strady, E., Nhu-Trang, T. T., David, F., & Marchand, C. (2018). Trace metals partitioning between particulate and dissolved phases along a tropical mangrove estuary (can Gio, Vietnam). Chemosphere, 196, 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Thanh-Nho, N., Marchand, C., Strady, E., Vinh, T. V., & Nhu-Trang, T. T. (2019). Metals geochemistry and ecological risk assessment in a tropical mangrove (can Gio, Vietnam). Chemosphere, 219, 365–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tran, P. (2014). Allometry, biomass and litter decomposition of the New Zealand mangrove Avicennia marina var. australasica. Auckland University of Technology. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10292/7674
  76. Valois, A. (2017). Mangawhai harbour water quality project. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA). NIWA Client Report No: 2017282HN. NIWA Project: KDC17201 (prepared for Mangawhai harbour water quality group).Google Scholar
  77. Vidal-Durà, A., Burke, I. T., Stewart, D. I., & Mortimer, R. J. (2018). Reoxidation of estuarine sediments during simulated resuspension events: Effects on nutrient and trace metal mobilisation. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 207, 40–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Webster, J. G., Brown, K. L., & Webster, K. S. (2000). Source and transport of trace metals in the Hatea River catchment and estuary, Whangarei, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 34(1), 187–201.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2000.9516925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Woodroffe, C. D. (1982). Litter production and decomposition in the New Zealand mangrove, Avicennia marina var. resinifera. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 16(2), 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Woodroffe, C. D. (1985). Studies of a mangrove basin, tuff crater, New Zealand: I. mangrove biomass and production of detritus. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 20(3), 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Applied Ecology, School of Science, Faculty of Health and Environmental SciencesAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.IMPMC, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UPMC, CNRS, MNHNNoumeaNew Caledonia
  3. 3.Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie (UNC), ISEA, EA 3325NoumeaNew Caledonia

Personalised recommendations