Advertisement

Relationship between soil and groundwater salinity in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

  • Parker J. BanksEmail author
  • John C. Banks
Article
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

Saturated soil paste extracts indicate soluble ions in soil pore water that are available to vegetation. As such, they are thought to accurately describe the relationship between soil and groundwater salinity. To test this assumption, soil and groundwater samples were collected from 575 monitoring wells in saline regions of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). Samples were analyzed for electrical conductivity (EC) and Cl, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, SO42−, and HCO− 3 content. We compared groundwater ionic concentrations to paste extracts derived from matching soils, finding that differences from in situ soil porosity cause saturated pastes to underestimate groundwater salinity. Therefore, we provide pedotransfer functions for accurately calculating groundwater quality from soil data. In addition, we discuss the effects of porosity and soil composition on the saturated paste method, as measured through hydraulic conductivity, saturation percent, and sample lithology. Groundwater salinity may also influence further leaching of salts from soil. As produced water (NaCl brine) spills are common across the sulfate-rich soils of the WCSB, we considered the effects of NaCl on leaching of other ions, finding that influx of Na+ into groundwater is associated with increased sulfate leaching from soil. Therefore, considering the secondary effects of produced water on groundwater quality is essential to spill management.

Keywords

Saturated paste method Groundwater quality Soil salinity Salt leaching Lithology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Matrix Solutions Inc. for providing analytical data for this study and encouraging continued improvement in the science of environmental consulting. We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers whose feedback greatly improved the quality this manuscript.

References

  1. Alberta Environment. (2001). Salt contamination assessment and remediation guidelines. Environmental Sciences Division, Edmonton, Alberta.Google Scholar
  2. Alberta Environment. (2019). Parks Alberta tier 1 soil and groundwater remediation guidelines. Land Policy Branch, Policy and Planning Division.Google Scholar
  3. APHA. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater: American Public Health Association (APHA): Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  4. ASTM Committee D-18. (2011). Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (Unified Soil Classification System). ASTM International.Google Scholar
  5. Bailey, N., Evans, C., Milner, C. (1974). Applying petroleum geochemistry to search for oil: examples from western Canada basin. AAPG Bulletin, 58(11), 2284–2294.Google Scholar
  6. Bourke, S.A., Turchenek, J., Schmeling, E.E., Mahmood, F.N., Olson, B.M., Hendry, M.J. (2015). Comparison of continuous core profiles and monitoring wells for assessing groundwater contamination by agricultural nitrate. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 35(1), 110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brønsted, J.N. (1922). Studies on solubility. iv. the principle of the specific interaction of ions. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 44(5), 877–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carter, M.R., & Gregorich, E.G. (2008). Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  9. CCME. (1994). Subsurface assessment handbook for contaminated sites. Canadian council of ministers of the environment (CCME), CCME EPCNCSRP-48E.Google Scholar
  10. Chapuis, R.P. (2004). Predicting the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sand and gravel using effective diameter and void ratio. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 41(5), 787–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cui, Y., Miller, D., Nixon, G., Nelson, J. (2015). British Columbia digital geology. British Columbia geological survey, open file 2.Google Scholar
  12. Curtin, D., & Syers, J. (1990). Extractability and adsorption of sulphate in soils. Journal of Soil Science, 41(2), 305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dempster, A.P., Laird, N.M., Rubin, D.B. (1977). Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the em algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 39(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  14. Donders, A.R.T., Van Der Heijden, G.J., Stijnen, T., Moons, K.G. (2006). A gentle introduction to imputation of missing values. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 59(10), 1087–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Einarson, M.D. (2006). Practical handbook of environmental site characterization and ground-water monitoring, (pp. 808–845). Boca Raton: CRC press. chap Multilevel ground-water monitoring.Google Scholar
  16. EPA SW-846. (2015). Final update V to the third edition of the test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods, U.S. Environmental protection agency, U.S. government printing office: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  17. Farnham, I.M., Singh, A.K., Stetzenbach, K.J., Johannesson, K.H. (2002). Treatment of nondetects in multivariate analysis of groundwater geochemistry data. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 60(1-2), 265–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gamie, R., & De Smedt, F. (2018). Experimental and statistical study of saturated hydraulic conductivity and relations with other soil properties of a desert soil. European Journal of Soil Science, 69 (2), 256–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Govett, G. (1958). Sodium sulfate deposits in Alberta. Research Council of Alberta.Google Scholar
  20. Govett, G. (1961). Occurrence and stratigraphy of some gypsum and anhydrite deposits in Alberta. Queen’s Printer for Alberta.Google Scholar
  21. Hanson, B., Grattan, S.R., Fulton, A. (1999). Agricultural salinity and drainage. University of california irrigation program, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  22. He, S., Kan, A.T., Tomson, M.B. (1999). Inhibition of calcium carbonate precipitation in nacl brines from 25 to 90 c. Applied Geochemistry, 14(1), 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hendry, M., & Paterson, B. (1982). Relationships between saturated hydraulic conductivity and some physical and chemical properties. Groundwater, 20(5), 604–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hitchon, B., & Holter, M. (1971). Calcium and magnesiumin Alberta brines. Alberta geological survey: Edmonton, Alberta; Economic geology report No 1.Google Scholar
  25. Hogg, T., & Henry, J. (1984). Comparison of 1: 1 and 1: 2 suspensions and extracts with the saturation extract in estimating salinity in saskatchewan soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 64(4), 699–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Honaker, J., King, G., Blackwell, M., et al. (2011). Amelia ii: a program for missing data. Journal of statistical software, 45(7), 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hvorslev, M.J. (1951). Time lag and soil permeability in ground-water observations. Bull 36, US Corps of Eng, Waterways Exp Station.Google Scholar
  28. Igunnu, E.T., & Chen, G.Z. (2012). Produced water treatment technologies. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, 9(3), 157–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jabro, J. (1992). Estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils from particle size distribution and bulk density data. Transactions of the ASAE, 35(2), 557–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Karkanis, P. (1983). Determining field capacity and wilting point using soil saturation by capillary rise. Canadian Agricultural Engineering, 25, 19–21.Google Scholar
  31. Kitano, Y. (1962). The behavior of various inorganic ions in the separation of calcium carbonate from a bicarbonate solution. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 35(12), 1973–1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lehmann, J., & Schroth, G. (2003). Nutrient leaching. Trees, crops and soil fertility, (pp. 151–166). Wallingford: CABI Publishing.Google Scholar
  33. Letey, J., & Klute, A. (1960). Apparent mobility of potassium and chloride ions in soil and clay pastes. Soil Science, 90(4), 259–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Longenecker, D.E., & Lyerly, P.J. (1964). Making soil pastes for salinity analysis: a reproducible capillary procedure. Soil Science, 97(4), 268–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Macdonald, R., & Slimmon, W.L. (1999). Geological map of Saskatchewan, 1999 edition. Saskatchewan industry and resources, 1:1 000 000 scale.Google Scholar
  36. Manitoba Land Initiative. (2014). Core maps - data warehouse: Geological map. http://mli2.gov.mb.ca/geology/.
  37. Mbagwu, J., & Okafor, D. (1995). Using saturation water percentage data to predict mechanical composition of soils. Tech. rep., International centre for theoretical physics.Google Scholar
  38. McKeague, J.A. (1978). Manual on soil sampling and methods of analysis. Canadian Society of Soil Science.Google Scholar
  39. Meijer, J., & Van Rosmalen, G. (1984). Solubilities and supersaturations of calcium sulfate and its hydrates in seawater. Desalination, 51(3), 255–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mitchell, J.K., Soga, K., et al. (2005). Fundamentals of soil behavior Vol. 3. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Mockobey, E.W. (1932). The solubility of calcium sulfate in sodium chloride solutions. Master?s thesis, University of Missouri.Google Scholar
  42. Mohan, K.K., Fogler, H.S., Vaidya, R.N., Reed, M.G. (1993). Water sensitivity of sandstones containing swelling and non-swelling clays. In Colloids in the aquatic environment (pp. 237–254): Elsevier.Google Scholar
  43. Mossop, G.D., & Shetsen, I. (1994). Geological atlas of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. Published jointly by the Canadian society of petroleum geologists and the Alberta research council, in sponsorship association with the Alberta department of energy and the geological survey of Canada.Google Scholar
  44. Neff, J., Lee, K., DeBlois, E.M. (2011). Produced water: overview of composition, fates, and effects. In Produced water (pp. 3–54): Springer.Google Scholar
  45. Nimmo, J.R. (2004). Porosity and pore size distribution. Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 3(1), 295–303.Google Scholar
  46. Porter, J., Price, R., McCrossan, R. (1982). The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A, 305(1489), 169–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Prior, G.J., Hathway, B., Glombick, P.M., Pana, D.I., Banks, C.J., Hay, D.C., Schneider, C.L., Grobe, M., Elgr, R., Weiss, J.A. (2013). Bedrock geology of Alberta. Alberta Geological Survey, Map 600.Google Scholar
  48. Revil, A., Grauls, D., Brévart, O. (2002). Mechanical compaction of sand/clay mixtures. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 107(B11), ECV–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rhoades, J., & Chanduvi, F. (1999). Soil salinity assessment: methods and interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements, vol 57. Food & Agriculture Org.Google Scholar
  50. Richards, L. (1954). Diagnosis and improving of saline and alkaline soils. US, salinity laboratory staff. Agric Handbook (60).Google Scholar
  51. Salman, M., Al-Nuwaibit, G., Safar, M., Al-Mesri, A. (2015). Solubility limits of major salts in sodium chloride solutions. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 5 (2), 1–7.Google Scholar
  52. Seidell, A., & Smith, J.G. (1904). The solubility of calcium sulphate in solutions of nitrates. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 8(7), 493–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shimizu, S. (2014). Lingam: non-gaussian methods for estimating causal structures. Behaviormetrika, 41(1), 65–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shimizu, S., Inazumi, T., Sogawa, Y., Hyvärinen, A., Kawahara, Y., Washio, T., Hoyer, P.O., Bollen, K. (2011). Directlingam: a direct method for learning a linear non-gaussian structural equation model. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 12(Apr), 1225–1248.Google Scholar
  55. Shternina, E. (1960). Solubility of gypsum in aqueous solutions of salts. International Geology Review, 2(7), 605– 616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Soil Classification Working Group. (1998). The Canadian system of soil classification. Agriculture and agri-food Canada publication, 1646, 187.Google Scholar
  57. Sperry, J.M., & Peirce, J.J. (1995). A model for estimating the hydraulic conductivity of granular material based on grain shape, grain size, and porosity. Groundwater, 33(6), 892–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stiven, G., & Khan, M. (1966). Saturation percentage as a measure of soil texture in the lower indus basin. Journal of Soil Science, 17(2), 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Svensson, T., Montelius, M., Andersson, M., Lindberg, C., Reyier, H., Rietz, K., Danielsson, Å., Bastviken, D. (2017). Influence of multiple environmental factors on organic matter chlorination in podsol soil. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(24), 14114?-14123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Templeton, C.C. (1960). Solubility of barium sulfate in sodium chloride solutions from 25 to 95 C. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 5(4), 514–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tietje, O., & Hennings, V. (1996). Accuracy of the saturated hydraulic conductivity prediction by pedo-transfer functions compared to the variability within fao textural classes. Geoderma, 69(1-2), 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tsikriktsis, N. (2005). A review of techniques for treating missing data in om survey research. Journal of Operations Management, 24(1), 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Veil, J.A., Puder, M.G., Elcock, D., Redweik, RJ Jr. (2004). A white paper describing produced water from production of crude oil, natural gas, and coal bed methane. Tech. rep., Argonne National Lab., IL (US).Google Scholar
  64. Venables, W.N., & Ripley, B.D. (2002). Modern applied statistics with S, 4th edn. New York: Springer. iSBN 0-387-95457-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Viets, FG Jr. (1972). Water deficits and nutrient availability. Water deficits and Plant Growth, 101, 217–239.Google Scholar
  66. Walter, J., Chesnaux, R., Cloutier, V., Gaboury, D. (2017). The influence of water/rock- water/clay interactions and mixing in the salinization processes of groundwater. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 13, 168–188.Google Scholar
  67. Wheeler, J.O., Hoffman, P.F., Card, K.D., Davidson, A., Sanford, B.V., Okulitch, A.V., Roest, W.R. (1996). Geological map of Canada: Geological survey of Canada A-Series Map 1860A, scale 1:5,000,000, 3 sheets.Google Scholar
  68. White, P.J., & Broadley, M.R. (2001). Chloride in soils and its uptake and movement within the plant: a review. Annals of Botany, 88(6), 967–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wong, M., Van der Kruijs, A., Juo, A. (1992). Leaching loss of calcium, magnesium, potassium and nitrate derived from soil, lime and fertilizers as influenced by urea applied to undisturbed lysimeters in South-East Nigeria. Fertilizer Research, 31(3), 281–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhang, H., Schroder, J., Pittman, J., Wang, J., Payton, M. (2005). Soil salinity using saturated paste and 1: 1 soil to water extracts. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69(4), 1146–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Matrix Solutions Inc.CalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations