Spatial patterns, geochemical evolution and quality of groundwater in Delta State, Niger Delta, Nigeria: implication for groundwater management

  • Fredrick B. Owoyemi
  • Gabriel E. Oteze
  • Olufemi V. OmononaEmail author


Delta State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, is an oil exploration and production region that is characterized by huge revenue generation but with its attendant waste generation and oil spillage that impact the environment. The variability in the hydrochemical characteristics, hydrochemical controlling processes and quality in space has been investigated. The pH of the groundwater samples ranged from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline nature. Biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand of the coastal area are higher than those of the inland area indicating more domestic and industrial contamination. Total dissolved solid values across the region indicated fresh and brackish water for the coastal area and fresh water only for the inland area. The orders of abundance of the cations and anions for the coastal and inland areas are Ca>Mg>Na>K/Cl>HCO3>SO4>NO3 and Na>Ca>K>Mg/HCO3>Cl>NO3>SO4 respectively. A Piper diagram identified four hydrochemical facies, namely CaHCO3, NaHCO3, NaCl and CaMgClSO4. Ionic cross plots and correlation matrix revealed that the groundwater chemistry of the inland area is predominantly influenced by silicate weathering and ion exchange processes while those of the coastal area are influenced by silicate weathering, ion exchange processes and seawater tidal flushing. The groundwater from the coastal area is more polluted by heavy metals than those from the inland area. The observed variability may be attributed to effects of industrial wastes and exploration activities. In terms of water quality for domestic and irrigation, the groundwater of the coastal and the inland areas are not generally potable and suitable as drinking and irrigation water sources.


Delta State Heavy metals Groundwater quality Hydrochemical facies Groundwater sources 



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fredrick B. Owoyemi
    • 1
  • Gabriel E. Oteze
    • 2
  • Olufemi V. Omonona
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Petroleum Engineering and GeosciencesPetroleum Training InstituteWarriNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Geology and Petroleum StudiesWestern Delta UniversityOgharaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Physics/Geology/GeophysicsAlex Ekwueme Federal UniversityNdufu AlikeNigeria

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