Analyzing trends of days with low atmospheric visibility in Iran during 1968–2013

  • Alireza Araghi
  • Mohammad Mousavi-BaygiEmail author
  • Jan Adamowski
  • Christopher J. Martinez


Atmospheric visibility (AV) is an indicator for assessing air quality and is measured in standard weather stations. The AV can change as a result of two main factors: air pollution and atmospheric humidity. This study aimed to investigate trends in the number of days with AV equal or less than 2 km (DAV2) in Iran during 1968–2013. Consequently, 43 weather stations with different climates were evaluated across the country, using the Mann–Kendall (MK) trend test. The results show that the number of stations with positive (i.e., significant or non-significant) MK z values was equal to, or greater than, those with negative MK z values, in all months and seasons of the year, as well as annually. Furthermore, summer and autumn had, respectively, the least and most stations with positive MK z values. Fewer trends in DAV2 were detected in the central, east, and northeast regions of the country. Analyzing the DAV2 and relative humidity together indicated that over 30% of stations had at-risk air quality in January, and that the largest number of stations with at-risk air quality was in the autumn and winter. These results are useful for better environmental planning to improve air quality, especially in developing countries such as Iran, where reduced air quality has been a major problem in recent decades.


Atmospheric visibility Mann–Kendall Trend Iran 



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza Araghi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Mousavi-Baygi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jan Adamowski
    • 2
  • Christopher J. Martinez
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Water Science and Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Bioresource Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesMcGill UniversitySainte-Anne-de-BellevueCanada
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Institute of Food and Agricultural SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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