Air quality impact assessment for the Eurasia Tunnel in Istanbul, Turkey
- 72 Downloads
The Eurasia Tunnel, a 5.4-km tunnel connecting the Asian and European sides of Istanbul, Turkey, was opened for operation in December 2016. This paper describes the air quality modeling that was conducted during the design phase of the structure, to evaluate the impact of the tunnel traffic on ambient air quality in the vicinity of the tunnel. The ventilation of the tunnel consists of longitudinal forced ventilation with vertical extraction through two stacks located near the Asian and European portals of the tunnel. The analysis was conducted using the AERMOD computer program for three pollutants CO, NO2, and PM10. Model results show that pollutants will rapidly disperse once released from the stack and will not affect air quality in the vicinity of the tunnel. The most critical parameters which controlled the ventilation system design were found to be NO2 and PM10. Maximum concentrations are not expected to violate the pertinent Turkish and EU air quality standards. Overall, this analysis shows that the ventilation system is efficient for the dispersion of the pollutants.
KeywordsAir quality modeling Eurasia Tunnel AERMOD CO NO2 PM10 Tunnel ventilation
The authors wish to express their thanks to the chairman of Yapı Merkezi Holding, Dr. Eng. Ersin Arıoğlu, the chairman of Eurasia Tunnel Operation, Construction and Investment Inc. Dipl. Eng. Başar Arıoğlu, and Yapı Merkezi board members for their support and academic interest. Recognition is also given to Eurasia Tunnel Operation, Construction and Investment Inc. members Dipl. Eng. Murat Gücüyener, Dipl. Eng. Badel Gün, Dipl. Eng. Aşkın Kaan Kaptan, and Dipl. Eng. Ceren Alaca Bayındır who were actively involved in the technical work and to Eng. Naim İşli, project management, and the crews on site. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this study are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of all organizations involved in the project.
- New Zealand Transport Agency (2013). Guide to road tunnels, 37 pp. https://www.nzta.govt.nz/assets/resources/guide-to-road-tunnels/docs/guide-to-road-tunnels.pdf.
- Cimorelli, A.J., Perry S.G., Venkatram A., Weil J.C., Paine R.J., Wilson R.B., Lee R.F., Peters W.D. (2003). AERMOD description of model formulation. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report, EPA 454/R-03-002d, 91 pp.Google Scholar
- Council Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:152:0001:0044:EN:PDF.
- Dix, A. (2006). Managing air outside of tunnels: contract no. 6400/3003. Report for The Rijkswaterstaat Department of Road and Hydraulic Engineering, The Netherlands. http://www.arnolddix.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ref-3-Managing-air-outside-tunnels.pdf.
- IFC (2007). Environmental, health, and safety general guidelines. International Finance Corporation. https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/554e8d80488658e4b76af76a6515bb18/Final+-+General+EHS+Guidelines.pdf?MOD=AJPERES.
- Jacobs Consultancy (2011). Istanbul Strait Road Tunnel crossing traffic and revenue analysis. Revised final report.Google Scholar
- Ma, J. Y., Yi, H. H., Tang, X. L., Zhang, Y., Xiang, Y., & Pu, L. (2013). Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 25, 1608–1617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) (2008) Air quality in and around traffic tunnels. Final Report, EH42, 182 pp. https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/35134960?selectedversion=NBD43778982.
- PIARC World Road Association (2004). Road tunnels: vehicle emissions and air demand for ventilation. Technical Committee 5 Road Tunnels, France, PIARC Ref. 05.14.BEN, ISBN : 2-84060-177-X, 72 pp.Google Scholar
- PIARC World Road Association (2008). Road tunnels: a guide to optimising the air quality impact upon the environment. Technical Committee 3.3 Road Tunnel Operation, France, PIARC Ref. 2008R04EN, ISBN: 2-84060-204-0, 179 pp.Google Scholar
- PIARC World Road Association (2012). Road tunnels: vehicle emissions and air demand for ventilation. PIARC Technical Committee C.4 Road Tunnel Operation, France, PIARC Ref. 2012R05EN, ISBN: 978-2-84060-269-5, 87 pp.Google Scholar
- Roads and Maritime Services (2014). TP08: options for treating road tunnel emissions. Advisory Committee on Tunnel Air Quality, NSW Government, 12 pp. http://www.chiefscientist.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/54791/Road-Tunnels_TP08_Options_for_treating_road_tunnel_emissions.pdf.
- Turkish Air Quality Standards (2008). Air quality evaluation and management guide, Official Gazette No 26898, June 6, 2008 (Annexes I and IA) in Turkish.Google Scholar
- TUIK (2015). Turkish Statistical Institute, Ankara, Turkey. www.tuik.gov.tr. Accessed September 2018.
- TUIK (2017). Turkish Statistical Institute, Ankara, Turkey. www.tuik.gov.tr. Accessed September 2018.
- USEPA (2018). AERMOD model formulation and evaluation, EPA-454/ R-18-003. https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/scram/models/aermod/aermod_mfed.pdf.
- WHO (2006). Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Global update 2006, WHO/SDE/PHE/OEH/06.02. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/69477/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf?sequence=1.
- Yapı Merkezi R&D Department (2009). Geotechnical report of mixshield TBM part of Eurasia Tunnel Project. Submitted to Istanbul Strait Road Crossing Project, Istanbul, 586 pp.Google Scholar