Exposure to lead and its effect on sleep quality and digestive problems in soldering workers
- 86 Downloads
Some studies show that exposure to lead affects sleep quality and causes digestive disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of sleep and digestive disorders in solderers exposed to lead. In a cross-sectional study, the occupational exposure of 40 soldering workers to lead fume and their blood lead levels were measured in the electronics industry of Neyshabur city, according to standard methods. The sleep quality of workers was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and their digestive disorders were recorded in a checklist. This study showed that 67.5% of subjects had poor sleep quality. There was a significant relation between sleep quality, air lead (p = 0.02), and blood lead (p = 0.03). Bad sleep quality was 2.4 times higher in subjects exposed to lead above the threshold (p = 0.03). 92.5% of the population under study suffered from at least one digestive disorder. Digestive disorders such as hiccupping (85%) and nausea (67%) were more common among the workers, and their odds was 3.09 and 2.00 times higher in workers exposed to lead above the threshold, compared with others. Bad sleep quality and gastrointestinal disorders were prevalent among workers exposed to lead. The results of this study confirm the need for further research about the side effects of lead on humans. It also clarifies the need for a revision in the recommended occupational exposure level for lead.
KeywordsLead Electronics industry Soldering Sleep hygiene Gastrointestinal disorders
The authors thank Dr. Abedi, PhD in Analytical Chemistry and the Simorgh Pharmaceutical Industry which helped us prepare and analyze the samples.
This study was conducted with the financial support of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences and Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, and by grant number 3036-96.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2005). Toxicological profile for lead, US Department of Health and Human services (pp. 102–125). Atlanta: US Government Printing.Google Scholar
- Alakoc, C., & Eroğlu, H. E. (2011). Determining mitoticindex in peripheral lymphocytes of weldersexposed to metalarc welding fumes. Turkish Journal of Biology, 35(3), 325–350.Google Scholar
- Altevogt., B. M., & Colten, H. R. (2006). Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: an unmet public health problem. National Academies Press; An Unmet Public Health Problem. Available: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11617.html.
- Arasaratnam, M., et al. (2004). Occupational lead exposure of soldering workers in an electronic factory. Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, 95, 49.Google Scholar
- Barkhordari, A., et al. (2014a). The toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on blood mononuclear cells. The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 5(3), 164–168.Google Scholar
- Barkhordari, A., et al. (2014b). The glycoprofile patterns of endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia. The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 5(4), 201–207.Google Scholar
- Dehghan-Nasiri, M., et al. (2012). Biological and environmental monitoring of lead and exposure in the automobile industry. Iran Occupational Health, 8(4), 1–8.Google Scholar
- Golpayegani, A., & Khanjani, N. (2012). Occupational and environmental exposure to lead in Iran: a systematic review. Journal of Health and Development, 1(1), 74–89.Google Scholar
- Hashemi Nejad, N., et al. (2013). Survey of relationship between mental health and job stress among midwives who were working in hospitals of Kerman, Iran, 2011. The Iranian journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility, 16(64), 1–9.Google Scholar
- Hussain, I. (2006). Investigation of heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Fe and Ni in Ammi visnaga. Chemical Society of Pakistan, 28(3), 241–245.Google Scholar
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2006).Group authors from the World Heealth Organization. IARC Monographs on theevaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Lyon:2006, Retrieved fall, 2018, fromavailable: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lead-poisoning-and-health.
- Itani, O., et al. (2018). Sleep-related factors associated with industrial accidents among factory workers and sleep hygiene education intervention. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 1–13.Google Scholar
- Khorasani, G., et al. (2008). The comparison of lead and zinc plasma levels in gastric cancer patients with healthy volunteers. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 3, 631–634.Google Scholar
- Mahurpawar, M. (2015). Effects of heavy metals on human health. International Journal of Research Granthaalayah, 1–7.Google Scholar
- Mohammadyan, M., et al. (2019a). Investigation of occupational exposure to lead and its relation with blood lead levels in electrical solderers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191, 126.Google Scholar
- Monk, T., & Folkard, S. (2005). Shifts; problems and approaches, Translation by Alireza Chobineh. Shiraz University of Medical Press.Google Scholar
- Naghavi, M. (2001). Death in eighteen provinces of Iran. Annual Report of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education, 127, 340–346.Google Scholar
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (2003). Lead in blood and urine. Retrieved fall, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-154/pdfs/8003.pdf.
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (2006). Metal & metalloid particulates in workplace atmospheres(atomic absorption). Retrieved Winter 2018, from https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc_l.html.
- Parmalee, N. L., & Aschner, M. (2017). Metals and circadian rhythms. Advances in Neurotoxicology (Vol. 1, pp. 119–130). Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Rahimi Moghadam, S., et al. (2017a). Decline in lung function among cement production workers: a meta-analysis. Reviews on Environmental Health, 32(4), 333–341.Google Scholar
- Roodbandi, A. S. J., et al. (2017). Sleep quality and sleepiness: a comparison between nurses with and without shift work, and university employees. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene, 8(4), 230–236.Google Scholar
- Shahtaheri, S., & Afshari, D. (2007). Occupational toxicology (pp. 237–243). Tehran: Baraye Farda Publication.Google Scholar
- Wilhelm, M., et al. (2010). Reassessment of critical lead effects by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission results in suspension of the human biomonitoring values (HBM I and HBM II) for lead in blood of children and adults. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 213(4), 265–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organisation. (1995). Biological indices of lead exposure and body burden. In: IPCS, Inorganic lead, Environmental Health Criteria 118, Geneva: WHO 165:114–18.Google Scholar