Advertisement

The identification of indigenous Cu and As metallophytes in the Lepanto Cu-Au Mine, Luzon, Philippines

  • Rene Juna R. ClaveriaEmail author
  • Teresita R. Perez
  • Rubee Ellaine C. Perez
  • John Leo C. Algo
  • Patricia Q. Robles
Article
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

The mining activities in the Lepanto Cu-Au Mine which is situated within the Mankayan Mineral District in the Philippines have exposed the arsenic (As)-rich copper (Cu)-gold (Au) and polymetallic ores to surface conditions. Cu and As dispersal into nearby soils and waters could pose health hazards to the natural ecosystems and human settlements. The study focused on the identification of indigenous metallophytes thriving in the area as well as the bioavailability of Cu and As in soils and its implication to the growth of the indigenous plants. Particular interests were on plant species that are capable of Cu and As absorption and have potential applications to mine rehabilitation. The samples were analyzed for total Cu and As contents. The soil samples were also subjected to different physicochemical analyses such as pH, organic matter, and nutrient content. Fern species had relatively high Cu and As contents in their biomass than other plant species found in the study area. The Cu and As concentrations in the plants might have been strongly influenced by the bioavailability of the metal and metalloid which were dependent on the physicochemical properties of the soil such as pH, organic matter, and nutrient contents. These identified metallophytes namely Dicranopteris linearis, Histiopteris incisa, Pityrogramma calomelanos, Pteris vittata, Nephrolepis hirsutula, Pteris sp., Pinus sp., Thysanolaena latifolia, and Melastoma malabathricum have tolerated the different Cu and As concentrations in the soil thus could be useful and effective for ecological restoration as an option to post-mining rehabilitation.

Keywords

Bioavailability Rehabilitation Phytoremediation Hyperaccumulators 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research project was supported by the Philippine Council for Industry, Energy and Emerging Technology Research and Development (PCIEERD) under the Department of Science and Technology. The authors would like to acknowledge the logistical support provided by the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company and access to the abandoned Japanese Tunnel. Appreciation is also extended to the following analytical laboratories: Philippine Institute of Pure and Applied Chemistry (PIPAC), First Analytical Services and Technical Cooperative (FAST), Ostrea Mineral Laboratories Inc., and Natural Sciences Research Institute (NSRI) for providing the chemical analyses of the different soil and plant samples. Our sincerest gratitude is extended to the 3 reviewers of this paper where comments and suggestions have greatly improved the content and presentation of data as well as discussions of interpretations and implications. To them we are most grateful.

References

  1. Adriano, D. C. (1986). Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  2. American Society for Testing and Materials (1987). Standard test methods for moisture, ash and organic matter of peat and other organic soils. ASTM D 29742987.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, C. W. N., Brooks, R. R., Chiarucci, A., LaCoste, C. J., Leblanc, M., Robinson, B. H., Simcocke, R., & Stewart, R. B. (1999a). Phytomining for nickel, thallium and gold. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 67, 407–415.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, C. W. N., Brooks, R. R., Stewart, R. B., & Robinson, B. H. (1999b). The phytoremdiation and phytomining of heavy metals. In Proceedings PACRIM, 99, 127–135.Google Scholar
  5. Ariyakanon, N., & Winaipanich, B. (2006). Phytoremediation of copper contaminated soil by Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. radiata. Journal of Scientometric Research from Chulalongkorn University., 31(1), 49–56.Google Scholar
  6. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1995). Official methods of analysis of AOAC. Arlington, VA (USA): Archive.com; http://archive.org/stream/gov.law.aoac.methods.1.1990/aoac.methods.1.1990_djvu.txt . Accessed 15 June 2013.
  7. Baker, A. (2008). Metal tolerance. New Phytologist, 106, 93–111.Google Scholar
  8. Bathia, N. P., Kachenko, A. G., & Singh, B. (2007). Heavy metal tolerance in common fern species. Australian Journal of Botany, 55, 63–73.Google Scholar
  9. Bech, J., Poschenrieder, C., Llugany, M., Barcelo, J., Tume, P., & Toloias, F. J. (1997). As and heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetation around a copper mine in Northern Peru. Science of Total Environment, 203, 83–91.Google Scholar
  10. Behmer, S., Lloyd, C., Raubenheimer, D., Stewart-Clark, J., Knight, J., & Leighton, R. (2005). Metal hyperaccumulation in plants: mechanisms of defense against insect herbivores. Functional Ecology, 19(1), 55–66.Google Scholar
  11. Bohn, H. L., McNeal, B. L., & O’Connor, G. A. (1979). Soil chemistry. NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc..Google Scholar
  12. Borkert, C. M., Cox, F. R., & Tucker, M. R. (1998). Zinc and copper toxicity in peanut, soybean, rice and corn in soil mixtures. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 29(19.2), 2991–3005.Google Scholar
  13. Bot, A., & Benites, J. (2005). The importance of soil organic matter. Food and Agriculture Organization of UN (FAO). Soil Bulletin 80. Rome.Google Scholar
  14. Boucher, U., Balabane, M., Lamy, I., & Cambier, P. (2004). Decomposition in soil microcosms of leaves of the metalophyte Arabidopsis halleri: effect of leaf-associated heavy metals on biodegradation. Environmental Pollution, 10, 1–8.Google Scholar
  15. Brady, N.C., Weil, R.R. (1999). The nature and properties of soils, 12th Edition. Prentice-Hall (Singapore) Pte Ltd.Google Scholar
  16. Brooks, R. R., & Robinson, B. H. (2004). The potential use of hyperaccumulators and other plants for phytomining. In R. R. Brooks (Ed.), Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals (pp. 261–288). Oxon: CAB International.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, K., Lemon, J. (2008). Cations and cation exchange capacity. Australia: SoilQuality.org.au; https://s3.amazonaws.com/soilquality-production/fact_sheets/29/original/Chem_-_Cation_Exchange_Capacity_web.pdf. Accessed 20 March 2013.
  18. Burns, H. (2006). Nutrient uptake of maize affected by nitrogen and potassium fertility in a humid subtropical environment. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 37, 275–293.Google Scholar
  19. Cadiz, N. M., Cadiz, R. T., & Vidal, N. B. (2005). Potential phytoremediation species in selected mine tailings areas (abstracts). Transaction of the National academy of Science and Technology Philippines, 27, 77.Google Scholar
  20. Cadiz, N. M., Aggangan, N. S., Pampolina, N. M., & Raymundo, A. K. (2006). Analyses of heavy metal uptake of some potential plants for phytoremediation in an abandoned mine area (abstracts). Transaction of the Natural Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines, 28, 56.Google Scholar
  21. Cao, X., Ma, L. Q., & Shiralipour, A. (2003). Effects of compost and phosphate amendments on arsenic mobility in soils and arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L. Environmental Pollution, 126, 157–167.Google Scholar
  22. Cao, X., Ma, L. Q., & Tu, C. (2004). Antioxidative responses to arsenic-hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.). Environmental Pollution, 128, 317–325.Google Scholar
  23. Cao, X., Ma, L. Q., Yoon, J., & Zhou, Q. (2006). Accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in native plants growing on contaminated Florida site. Science of the Total Environment, 368, 456–464.Google Scholar
  24. Chang, Z., Hedenquist, J. W., White, N. C., Cooke, D. R., Roach, M., Deyell, C. L., Gemmell, J. B., McKnight, S., & Cuison, A. L. (2011). Exploration tools for linked porphyry and epithermal deposits: example from the Mankayan intrusion-centered Cu-Au District, Luzon, Philippines. Economic Geology, 106(8), 1369–1398.Google Scholar
  25. Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan Mineral District, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97–106.Google Scholar
  26. Claveria, R. J. R., & Hedenquist, J. W. (1994). Paragenesis of gold and related minerals in Lepanto Cu-Au deposit, Philippines (abstract). Resource Geology, 44(246), 287.Google Scholar
  27. Claveria, R. J. R., Delos Santos, C. Y., Teodoro, K. B., Rellosa, N. A., & Valera, N. S. (2010). The identification of metallophytes in the Fe and Cu enriched environments of Brookes Point, Palawan and Mankayan, Benguet and their implication to phytoremediation. Science Diliman, 21(2), 1–12.Google Scholar
  28. Claveria, R. J. R., De Leon, E. G. E., & Teodoro, K. B. (2011). The identification of fern species as metallophytes and their implications to mine rehabilitation. In Abstracts of Papers, 33rd NAST Annual Scientific Meeting. Transactions of the National Academy of Science and Technology, 33(1).Google Scholar
  29. Clemens, S., Palmgren, M., & Kramer, U. (2002). A long way ahead: understanding and engineering plant metal accumulation. Trends in Plant Science, 7(7), 309–315.Google Scholar
  30. Cobbett, C. (2003). Heavy metals and plants: model systems and hyperaccumulators. New Phytologist, 159(2), 289–293.Google Scholar
  31. Concepcion, R.A., Cinco, J.C. Jr. (1987). Geology of the Lepanto Far Southeast Gold-rich porphyry copper deposit, Mankayan, Benguet, Phiippines. In Proceedings 28th International Geological Congress, 1319–1320.Google Scholar
  32. Craig, J. R., Vaughan, D. J., & Skinner, B. J. (2001). Resources of the earth: origin, use and environmental impacts. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  33. Cui, S., Zhou, Q., & Chao, L. (2007). Potential hyperaccumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd in endurant plants distributed in an old smeltery, Northeast China. Environmental Geology, 51(6), 1043–1048.Google Scholar
  34. De Abreu, C. A., Coscione, A. R., Pires, A. M., & Paz-Ferreiro, J. (2012). Phytoremediation of a soil contaminated by heavy metals and boron using castor oil plants and organic matter amendments. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 123, 3–7.Google Scholar
  35. Deng, H., Ye, Z. H., & Wong, M. H. (2004). Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China. Environmental Pollution, 132, 29–40.Google Scholar
  36. Disini, A. F., Robertson, B. M., & Claveria, R. J. R. (1998). The Mankayan Mineral District, Luzon, Philippines. In Proceedings Porphyry and hydrothermal copper and gold deposits: a global perspective (pp. 75–86). Perth.Google Scholar
  37. Dobran, S., & Zagury, G. J. (2006). Arsenic speciation and mobilization in CCA-contaminated soils: influence of organic matter content. Science of the Total Environment, 364, 239–250.Google Scholar
  38. European Committee for Standardization. (2005). EN 14546: Foodstuffs-Determination of trace elements-Determination of total arsenic by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) after dry ashing. Stockholm: Swedish Standard Institute.Google Scholar
  39. Fayiga, A. O., Ma, L. Q., Cao, R. X., & Rathinasabapathi, B. (2004). Effects of heavy metals on growth and arsenic accumulation in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Environmental Pollution, 132, 289–296.Google Scholar
  40. Fayiga, A. O., Ma, L. Q., & Rathinasabapathi, B. (2008). Effects of nutrients on arsenic accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 62, 231–237.Google Scholar
  41. Flathman, P., & Lanza, G. (1998). Phytoremediation: current views on an emerging green technology. Soil Sediment Contamination International Journal, 71, 415–432.Google Scholar
  42. Francesconi, K., Visoottiviseth, P., Sridokchan, W., & Goessler, W. (2002). Arsenic species in an arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pityrogramma calomenalos: a potential phytoremediator of arsenic contaminated soils. Science of the Total Environment, 284, 27–35.Google Scholar
  43. Fulton, A. (2011). Primary plant nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Davis, CA (USA): University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources; http://cetehama.ucanr.edu/newsletters/Soil_Testing_Articles-by_Allan_Fulton39345.pdf . Accessed 6 Nov 2013.
  44. Garcia, J. S., Jr. (1991). Geology and mineralization characteristics of the Mankayan Mineral District, Benguet, Philippines. Geological Survey of Japan Rep, 277, 21–30.Google Scholar
  45. Garg, G., Kataria, S. (2009). Phytoremediation potential of Raphanus sativus (L.), Brassica juncea (L.), and Triticum aestivum (L.) for copper contaminated soil. Greater Noida (India): Gautam Buddha University; http://journals.isss.org/index.php/proceedings53rd/article/viewFile/1123/405. Accessed 2 Feb 2013.
  46. Gonzaga, M. I. S., Santos, J. A. G., & Ma, L. Q. (2006). Arsenic phytoextraction and hyperaccumulation by fern species. Scientia Agricola, 63, 90–101.Google Scholar
  47. Gonzaga, M. I. S., Ma, L. Q., Pacheco, E. P., & dos Santos, W. M. (2012). Predicting arsenic bioavailability to hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata in arsenic contaminated soils. International Journal of Phytoremediattion, 14(10), 939–949.Google Scholar
  48. Gonzales, A. G. (1959). Geology and genesis of the Lepanto copper-gold deposit, Mankayan, Mountain Province, Philippines. PhD Dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  49. Gotera, K., Doronila, A., Claveria, R., Perez, T., Unson, J., Penaranda, M., Sebastian, M., & Medina, J. (2014). Breynia cernua (Poir.) Mull. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae) is a hyperaccumulator of nickel. Asian Life Sciences, 23(1), 231–241.Google Scholar
  50. Hall, J. L. (2002). Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55(366), 1–11.Google Scholar
  51. Hedenquist, J. W., Arribas, A., Jr., & Reynolds, T. J. (1998). Evolution of an intrusion-centered hydrothermal system: Far Southeast-Lepanto porphyry and epithermal cu-au deposits, Philippines. Economic Geology, 93(4), 1–32.Google Scholar
  52. Ismail, S. (2012). Phytoremediation: a green technology. Iran Journal of Plant Physiology, 3(1), 567–576.Google Scholar
  53. Japenga, J., Koopmans, G., Song, J., & Romkens, P. (2007). A feasibility test to estimate the duration of phytorextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 9(2), 115–132.Google Scholar
  54. Jensen, T. (2010). Soil pH and the availability of plant nutrients. Peachtree Corners, GA (USA): International Plant Nutrition Institute; http://www.ipni.net/ipniweb/pnt.nsf/5a4b8be72a35cd46852568d9001a18da/97c1b6659f3405a28525777b0046bcb9!OpenDocument. Accessed 6 Nov 2013.
  55. John, D. A., & Leventhal, J. S. (1995). Bioavailability of metals, Ch. 2. In: du Bray (ed.) Preliminary compilation of descriptive geoenvironmental mineral deposit models. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey Open-File Report 95831, Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
  56. Kabata-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (1984). Trace elements in soils and plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  57. Kachenko, A. G., Bhatia, N. P., Singh, B., & Siegele, R. (2007). Arsenic hyperaccumulation and localization in the pinnule and stipe tissues of the gold-dust fern Pityrogramma calomelanos L. Link var. austroamericana (Domin) Farw, using quantitative micro-PIXE spectroscopy. Plant and Soil, 300, 207–219.Google Scholar
  58. Kertulis, G. M., Ma, L. Q., Macdonald, G. E., Chen, R., Winefordner, J. D., & Cai, Y. (2005). Arsenic speciation and transport in Pteris vittata L. and effects on phosphorus in the xylem sap. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 54, 239–247.Google Scholar
  59. Komar, K. (1999). Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil: plant identification and uptake enhancement, Masters Thesis, University of Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  60. Lasat, M. M. (2002). Phytoextraction of toxic metals: a review of biological mechanisms. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 109–120.Google Scholar
  61. Leopold, I., Gunther, D., Schmidt, J., & Neumann, D. (1999). Phytochelatins and heavy metal tolerance. Phytochemistry, 50, 1323–1328.Google Scholar
  62. Lombi, E., Zhao, F., Fuhrmann, M., Ma, L. Q., & McGrath, S. P. (2002). Arsenic distribution and speciation in the fronds of the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. New Phytologist, 156, 195–203.Google Scholar
  63. Ma, L. Q., Komar, K. M., Tu, C., Zhang, W., Cai, Y., & Kennelley, E. D. (2001). A fern that hyperaccumulates arsenic. Nature, 409, 579.Google Scholar
  64. Matschullat, J. (2000). Arsenic in the geosphere – a review. Science of the Total Environment, 249, 297–312.Google Scholar
  65. McGrath, S. P. (2004). Phytoextraction for soil remediation. In R. R. Brooks (Ed.), Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals (pp. 261–288). Oxon: CAB International.Google Scholar
  66. Miller, R. (2004). Soil nitrate nitrogen. Corvallis, OR (USA): Oregon State University; http://isnap.oregonstate.edu/WERA_103/Methods/WCC-103-Manual-2003-Soil-Nitrate.PDF. Accessed 15 June 2013.
  67. Montgomery, C. (1997). Environmental geology (5th ed.). Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  68. Naidu, R., Smith, E., Owens, G., & Bhattacharya, P. (2008). Managing arsenic in the environment: from soil to human health. In P. Nadebaum (Ed.), Technology and engineering. CSIRO Publishing 656 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Nathan, M., Stecker, J., Sun, Y. (2012). Soil testing in Missouri. Columbia, MO (USA): University of Missouri Division of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources; http://soilplantlab.missouri.edu/soil/ec923.pdf. Accessed 14 June 2013.
  70. National Park Service. (2009). Preparing and storing herbarium specimens; http://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/11-12pdf. Accessed 2 Feb 2013.
  71. Niazi, N.K., Singh, B., Van Zwieten, L., & Kachenko, A.G. (2010). Arsenic hyperaccumulation by ferns: a field study in Northern NSW, In Proceedings 19 th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
  72. Nouri, J., Khorasani, N., Lorestani, B., Karami, M., Hassani, A. H., & Yousefi, N. (2009). Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and uptake by plant species with phytoremediation potential. Environmental Earth Science, 59, 315–323.Google Scholar
  73. Outridge, P. M., & Noller, B. N. (1991). Accumulation of toxic trace elements by freshwater vascular plants. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 121, 1–63.Google Scholar
  74. Pierce, M. L., & Moore, C. B. (1982). Adsorption of As (III) and As(V) on amorphous iron hydroxide. Water Research, 16(7), 1247–1253.Google Scholar
  75. Prasad, M. N. V. (2002). Phytoremediation of metal polluted ecosystems: hype for commercialization. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 50(5), 686–700.Google Scholar
  76. Pyatt, F. B. (2001). Copper and Lead bioaccumulation by Acacia retinoides and Eucalyptus torquata in sites contaminated as a consequence of extensive ancient mining activities in Cyprus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 50, 60–64.Google Scholar
  77. Reichman, S. (2002). The responses of plants to metal toxicity: a review focusing on copper, manganese, and zinc. Occasional Paper, 14, 1–54.Google Scholar
  78. Robinson, B. H., Lombi, E., Zhao, F. J., & McGrath, S. P. (2003). Uptake and distribution of nickel and other metals in the hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii. New Phytologist, 158(2), 279–285.Google Scholar
  79. Sadiq, M. (1997). Arsenic chemistry in soils: an overview of thermodynamic predictions and field observations. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 93, 117–136.Google Scholar
  80. Sarma, H. (2011). Metal hyperaccumulation in plants: a review focusing on phytoremediation technology. Journal of Environmental Science, 4(2), 118–138.Google Scholar
  81. Sauerbeck, D. R. (1991). Plant, element and soil properties governing uptake and availability of heavy metals derived from sewage sludge. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 57-8, 227–237.Google Scholar
  82. Schwitzguebel, J. P. (2002). Hype or hope: the potential of phytoremediation as an emerging green technology. Federal Facilities Environmental Journal, 13, 109–125.Google Scholar
  83. Sikora, F., & Kissel, D. (2013). Soil pH. Clemson: Clemson University www.clemson.edu/sera6/SoilpHFinal081910.doc. Accessed 16 June 2013.Google Scholar
  84. Sillitoe, R. H. (2010). Porphyry copper systems. Economic Geology, 105, 3–41.Google Scholar
  85. Sillitoe, R. H., & Angeles, C. A., Jr. (1985). Geological characteristics and evolution of a gold-rich porphyry copper deposit at Guinaoang, Luzon, Philippines. Asian Mining, 85, 15–26.Google Scholar
  86. Singh, V. (2005). Toxic metals and environmental issues. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons.Google Scholar
  87. Singh, N., Ma, L. Q., Vu, J. C., & Raj, A. (2009). Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns. Environmental Pollution, 157, 2300–2305.Google Scholar
  88. Stoltz, E., & Gregor, M. (2001). Accumulation properties of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by four wetland plant species growing on submerged mine tailings. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 47, 271–280.Google Scholar
  89. Tu, C., & Ma, L. Q. (2003). Effects of arsenate and phosphate on their accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Plant and Soil, 249, 373–382.Google Scholar
  90. Tu, C., Ma, L. Q., & Bondada, B. (2002). Arsenic accumulation in hyperaccumulator Chinese brake and its utilization potential for phytoremediation. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31(5), 1671–1675.Google Scholar
  91. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). Phytoremediation. Resource Guide, 1–56.Google Scholar
  92. University of Canterbury College of Science. (2011). Determination of phosphate concentration in soil. Christchurch (New Zealand): University of Canterbury http://www.outreach.canterbury.ac.nz/chemistry/documents/phosphate.pdf. Accessed 16 June 2013.Google Scholar
  93. Visoottiviseth, P., Francesconi, K., & Sridokchan, W. (2002). The potential of Thai indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated land. Environmental Pollution, 118, 453–461.Google Scholar
  94. Wang, J., Zhao, F., Meharg, A. R., Raab, A., Feldmann, J., & McGrath, S. P. (2002). Mechanism of arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata. Uptake kinetics, interaction with phosphate and arsenic speciation. Plant Physiology, 130, 1552–1561.Google Scholar
  95. Wauchope, R. D. (1983). Uptake, translocation and phytotoxicity of As in plants. In W. H. Lederer & R. J. Fensterhein (Eds.), As: industrial, biomedical, environmental perspectives. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhole Company.Google Scholar
  96. White, N.C., & Hedenquist, J.W. (1990). Epithermal environments and styles of mineralization: variations and their causes, and guidelines for exploration. In Hedenquist, J.W., White, N.C. and Siddely, G. (Eds.) Epithermal gold mineralization of the Circum-Pacific: geology, geochemistry, origin and exploration II. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 36, 445–474.Google Scholar
  97. Xu, W., Kachenko, A. G., & Singh, B. (2010). Effect of soil properties on arsenic accumulation in Pteris vittata and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. Austroamericana. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 12(2), 174–187.Google Scholar
  98. Yang, X., Peng, H., & Jiang, L. (2005). Phytorextraction of copper from contrminated soil by Elsholtzia splendens as affected by edta, citric acid and compost. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 7(1), 69–83.Google Scholar
  99. Yates, T. E., Brooks, R. R., & Boswell, C. R. (1974). Factor analysis in botanical methods of exploration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 11, 563–574.Google Scholar
  100. Zheng, J., Wang, H., Li, Z., Tang, S., & Chen, Z. (2008). Using elevated carbon dioxide to enhance copper accumulation in Pteridium revolutum, a copper-tolerant plant, under experimental conditions. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 10(2), 161–172.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceAteneo de Manila UniversityQuezon CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations