Chemical characterization of vines grown in incipient volcanic soils of Fogo Island (Cape Verde)
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Climate and rich volcanic soils of Fogo Island (Cape Verde) are optimal conditions for grape agriculture. This study aims a first evaluation of the bioaccumulation of essential and non-essential elements in different parts of vines of the same variety (Vitis vinifera L.), grown on recent pyroclasts and lahar deposits. Chemical composition was obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A general decrease of the chemical contents occurs in the following order: barks, leaves, and grapes. Lower chemical contents were found in the grapes cultivated on the lahar deposit, except for barium. Potassium and bromine are the most accumulated. A tendency for lower transfer coefficients and enrichment factors (EF) of the chemical elements studied occur in vines grown in lahar. Significant EF of the majority of the elements studied were observed, particularly in leaves and grapes. Among the rare earth elements (REE), the heavy ones are significantly enriched in grapes. Slight positive Eu anomalies occur, which can be explained as inherited from the soil, and by a preferential uptake of Eu2+, replacing Ca2+. Among potential harmful chemical elements, significant EF (> 10) for Cr, As, Sb, W, and U in the two vines occur. Although its low concentration, the results obtained point to U bioavailability. The bioaccumulation of some chemical elements in vines from Fogo Island may be due to several factors of geogenic/natural origin, namely soil composition, airborne fine particles, and the climatic conditions of aridity with a potential availability when raindrops fall.
KeywordsVolcanic soils Vines Trace elements Bioaccumulation INAA
Grateful acknowledgments are made to, to the Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering (LEN) and also to the staff of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) of CTN/IST for their assistance with the neutron irradiations.
Financial support made by the project UID/GEO/04035/2013. C2TN/IST authors received support from FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) through the UID/Multi/04349/2013 project.
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