Distribution pattern and pollution status by analysis of selected heavy metal amounts in coastal sediments from the southern Caspian Sea

  • Mohammad Abadi
  • Abbasali ZamaniEmail author
  • Abdolhossein Parizanganeh
  • Younes Khosravi
  • Hamid Badiee


Amounts of heavy metal elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Fe) in surficial sediments at four regions (coastline, estuaries, rivers discharging into the sea, and Gorgan Bay) along the southern coastline of the Caspian Sea were investigated in summer 2015. Collected data was applied to appraise the sediment contamination degree and the origin of pollutants based on the Geo-accumulation Index. Pollution status was assessed via the Enrichment Factor (EF) and the Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI, the Hakanson index). Heavy metal contents in sediments in mg g−1 dw varied from 3000 to 39,500 for Fe, 166.66 to 2000 for Mn, 11 to 4198 for Zn, not detected (ND) to 822.83 for Pb, ND to 40.66 for Cd, 6.16 to 37.16 for Cu, 11.66 to 69 for Ni, and 6.33 to 33.00 for Co. Higher amounts of Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Fe were determined in rivers discharging sediments into the sea. In Gorgan Bay, Zn, Ni, and Co were highest. Greater potential ecological risk levels were detected along the coastline as well as rivers discharging into the sea. Among heavy metals considered, Zn and Cd had the highest enrichment factors. The Geo-accumulation Index proved that the investigated region could be classified as Zn- and Cd-polluted area.


Heavy metals Caspian Sea Enrichment factor Sediment Statistical analysis 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Mr. Ahmad Rezaee, Shemsh Sazan Zanjan Company, for his contribution (sampling, determination, and analyzing of heavy metals) to this work.

Supplementary material

10661_2019_7261_MOESM1_ESM.docx (102 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 101 kb)


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Abadi
    • 1
  • Abbasali Zamani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdolhossein Parizanganeh
    • 1
  • Younes Khosravi
    • 1
  • Hamid Badiee
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceGuilan UniversityRashtIran

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