Ecosystem services in different agro-climatic zones in eastern India: impact of land use and land cover change
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Land use and land cover (LULC) change have considerable influence on ecosystem services. Assessing change in ecosystem services due to LULC change at different spatial and temporal scales will help to identify suitable management practices for sustaining ecosystem productivity and maintaining the ecological balance. The objective of this study was to investigate variations in ecosystem services in response to LULC change over 27 years in four agro-climatic zones (ACZ) of eastern India using satellite imagery for the year 1989, 1996, 2005, 2011 (Landsat TM) and 2016 (Landsat 8 OLI). The satellite images were classified into six LULC classes, agriculture land, forest, waterbody, wasteland, built-up, and mining area. During the study period (1989 to 2016), forest cover reduced by 5.2%, 13.7%, and 3.6% in Sambalpur, Keonjhar, and Kandhamal districts of Odisha, respectively. In Balasore, agricultural land reduced by 17.2% due to its conversion to built-up land. The value of ecosystem services per unit area followed the order of waterbodies > agricultural land > forests. A different set of indicators, e.g., by explicitly including diversity, could change the rank between these land uses, so the temporal trends within a land use are more important than the absolute values. Total ecosystem services increased by US$ 1296.4 × 105 (50.74%), US$ 1100.7 × 105 (98.52%), US$ 1867 × 105 (61.64%), and US$ 1242.6 × 105 (46.13%) for Sambalpur, Balasore, Kandhamal, and Keonjhar, respectively.
KeywordsAgro-climatic zone Ecosystem function Ecosystem service value Land-use and land-cover change
Authors acknowledge the financial help provided by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India and also thank Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and Director, ICAR-National Rice Research Institute (NRRI) for giving all the necessary help in executing the work. The help provided by officials of various departments of Odisha in carrying out the survey work is gratefully acknowledged. This study is a part of the project entitled “Delivering food security on limited land (DEVIL; Belmont Forum/FACCE-JPI via NERC: NE/M021327/1)”.
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