A geochemical analogy between the metal sources in Kuwait Bay and territorial sea water of Kuwait

  • Chidambaram SabarathinamEmail author
  • Harish Bhandary
  • Asim Al-Khalid


The sea water serves as a source for desalination and shelter for dependent biota. To understand the sources of metal in Kuwait Bay and the open sea, samples were collected and analyzed for metals like B, Li, Sr, Hg, Pb, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Se, V, Al, Mo, and As. The comparison of Bay and Seawater shows that most of the metals were higher in sea water. Samples were collected in two different transects in the territorial sea water (TSW), the northern, and the southern transects. The heavy metal evaluation index and degree of contamination calculated for Bay and TSW show that they are contaminated, and the degree was higher in TSW. The variation of metal concentration along the transects in TSW reflects three different behaviors; (1) few metals decrease from the shore, (2) few increases from the shore, and (3) others show no significant trend. The statistical analysis of the data shows a representation of five factors for bay water and six for TSW indicating the complexity in sources of metal in TSW. The analysis infers the metal contamination due to petroleum products, and oxidation-reduction cycles are predominant in TSW. But, tidal influence along with dustfall plays a key role in the metal contamination of bay waters. Apart from these, desalination rejects and domestic sewage effluents are common sources contributing metals to both the environment. It is also observed that the suspended sediments play a significant role in the leaching, adsorption, and distribution of metals. The extraneous process has a predominant control over the distribution of the metals in TSW than the Bay.


Heavy metal evaluation index Desalination Domestic sewage Dust fall Pollution 



The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR), Kuwait, for the financial assistance and to Water Research Center of KISR, for their support in implementation of the study in both lab and field. The authors would also like to thank IAEA for their in-kind support extended for this study though WM068C.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Research CenterKuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchKuwait CityKuwait

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