A geochemical analogy between the metal sources in Kuwait Bay and territorial sea water of Kuwait
- 32 Downloads
The sea water serves as a source for desalination and shelter for dependent biota. To understand the sources of metal in Kuwait Bay and the open sea, samples were collected and analyzed for metals like B, Li, Sr, Hg, Pb, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Se, V, Al, Mo, and As. The comparison of Bay and Seawater shows that most of the metals were higher in sea water. Samples were collected in two different transects in the territorial sea water (TSW), the northern, and the southern transects. The heavy metal evaluation index and degree of contamination calculated for Bay and TSW show that they are contaminated, and the degree was higher in TSW. The variation of metal concentration along the transects in TSW reflects three different behaviors; (1) few metals decrease from the shore, (2) few increases from the shore, and (3) others show no significant trend. The statistical analysis of the data shows a representation of five factors for bay water and six for TSW indicating the complexity in sources of metal in TSW. The analysis infers the metal contamination due to petroleum products, and oxidation-reduction cycles are predominant in TSW. But, tidal influence along with dustfall plays a key role in the metal contamination of bay waters. Apart from these, desalination rejects and domestic sewage effluents are common sources contributing metals to both the environment. It is also observed that the suspended sediments play a significant role in the leaching, adsorption, and distribution of metals. The extraneous process has a predominant control over the distribution of the metals in TSW than the Bay.
KeywordsHeavy metal evaluation index Desalination Domestic sewage Dust fall Pollution
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR), Kuwait, for the financial assistance and to Water Research Center of KISR, for their support in implementation of the study in both lab and field. The authors would also like to thank IAEA for their in-kind support extended for this study though WM068C.
- Abouhend, A. S., & El-Moselhy, K. M. (2015). Spatial and seasonal variations of heavy metals in water and sediments at the northern Red Sea coast. American Journal of Water Resources, 3(3), 73–85.Google Scholar
- Al-Ami, M. Y., Al-Nakib, S. M., Ritha, N. M., Nouri, A. M., & Al-Assina, A. (1987). Water quality index applied to the classification and zoning of Al-Jaysh canal, Bagdad, Iraq. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, (22), 305–319.Google Scholar
- Al-Ghadban, A. N., Al-Majed, N., & Al-Muzaini, S. (2002). The state of marine pollution in Kuwait: Northern Arabian Gulf. Technology, 8(1–2), 7–26.Google Scholar
- Al-Ghadban, A. N., Saeed, T., Al-Dousari, A. M., Al-Shemmari, H., Al-Mutairi, M., (1999). Preliminary assessment of the impact of drainage of Iraqi marches on Kuwait’s northern marine environment. Part I. Physical manipulation. Water Science Technology 40(4), 75–87.Google Scholar
- Alkas, F. B., Shaban, J. A., Sukuroglu, A. A., Kurt, M. A., Battal, D., & Saygi, S. (2017). Monitoring and assessment of heavy metal/metalloid concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method in Gonyeli Lake, Cyprus. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189(10), 516. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6222-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Al-Sarawi, M. A., Massoud, M. S., Khader, S. R., & Bou-Olyan, A. H. (2002). Recent trace metal levels in coastal waters of Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait. Technology, 8, 27–38.Google Scholar
- ANZECC (1992). Australian water quality guidelines for fresh and marine waters. National Water Quality Management Strategy Paper No 4, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Canberra.Google Scholar
- BOBLME (2011). Country Report on Pollution—Malaysia. BOBLME 2011-Ecology-11.Google Scholar
- Bruland, K. W. (1983). Trace elements in sea water. In J. P. Riley & R. Chester (Eds.), III Chemical oceanography (Vol. 8, pp. 157–220). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Bu-Olayan, A. H., & Thomas, B. V. (2004). Effects of trace metals, harmful algal blooms, nutrients and hydrological variables to mullet Liza klunzingeri in Kuwait Bay. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 2, 1–8.Google Scholar
- Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers (CCREM). (1987) Canadian water quality guidelines. Water Quality Branch, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ont. (updated in April, 1992).Google Scholar
- Cassella, R. J., de Sant'Ana, O. D., & Santelli, R. E. (2002). Determination of arsenic in petroleum refinery streams by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after multivariate optimization based on Doehlert design. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 57(12), 1967–1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CCME. (1999). Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment, 1999.Google Scholar
- Dames, & More. (1983). Studies for Subiya area Kuwait Bay and development of electrical networks. Part 1. Hydraulic studies and aquatic biology. Ministry of Electricity and Water, KuwaitGoogle Scholar
- de Mora, S., Tolosa, I., Fowler, S. W., Villeneuve, J. P., Cassi, R., & Cattini, C. (2010). Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(12), 2323–2349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Edet, A. E., & Offiong, O. E. (2002). Evaluation of water quality pollution indices for heavy metal contamination monitoring. A study case from Akpabuyo–Odukpani area, Lower Cross River Basin (southeastern Nigeria). GeoJournal, 57, 295–304. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:GEJO.0000007250.92458.de.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eken, M. D., & Akman, B. (2018). Assessment of heavy metal pollution of seston from freshwater resources poured into the Northeast Mediterranean region. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(5). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6642-2.
- Ghobrial, F., Lionel, M., Patel, B., & Awad, A. (1987). Assessment of raw sewage and treated effluent characteristics in Kuwait. Kuwait institute for scientific research, Report No. KISR 2406B, Kuwait.Google Scholar
- Hart, B. T. (1982). Australian water quality criteria for heavy metals.Google Scholar
- Herath, D., Pitawala, A., Gunatilake, J., & Iqbal, M. C. (2018). Using multiple methods to assess heavy metal pollution in an urban city. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(11). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-7016-5.
- Literathy, P., Morel, G., Zarba, M. A., Samhan, O., Bloushi, A., Hashash, H., Matrouk, K., & Jacob, P. G. (1992). Petroleum compounds in the marine Environment of Kuwait. Report No. KISR 4054. Kuwait.Google Scholar
- MPW (2006) “Treatment plant data,” (Personal Communication, MPW Staff).Google Scholar
- Nadkarni, R. A. (1991). The quest for quality in the laboratory. Analytical Chemistry, 63, 675A±682A.Google Scholar
- Neelamani, S. (2017). Coastal erosion and accretion in Kuwait–problems and management strategies. Ocean & Coastal Management.Google Scholar
- Neelamani, S., Al-Salem, K., & Rakha, K. (2006). Extreme water waves in the UAE territorial waters. Emirates Journal for Engineering Research, 11(2), 37–46.Google Scholar
- Neelamani, S., & Al-Shatti, F. (2014). The expected sea-level rise scenarios and its impacts on the Kuwaiti coast and estuarine wetlands. International Journal of Ecology & Development™, 29(3), 32–43.Google Scholar
- New South Wales Health (2000). Profile of the Nursing Workforce in New South Wales. Statewide Services Development Branch. Sydney: New South Wales Health.Google Scholar
- Nubert-Chetan, M., & Gafu, C. (2008). DINAMICA REPERTORIULUI MUZICAL al ISTROROMÂNILOR din CROATIA. DIMENSIUNI ALE CONSERVĂRII ŞI REVALORIZĂRII. Anuarul Institutului de Etnografie şi Folclor Constantin Brăiloiu, 19.Google Scholar
- Olsen, S. D., Filby, R. H., Brekke, T., & Isaksen G. H. (1995). Determination of trace elements in petroleum exploration samples by inductively coupled mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Analyst, 120, 1379±1390.Google Scholar
- Otim, O., Juma, T., & Savinelli, R. (2018). The effect of a massive wastewater discharge on nearshore ocean chemistry. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(4). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6530-9.
- Petrenko, V. I., & Dorogochinskaya, V. A. (1995). Change in the microelemental composition of crude oil containing dissolved formation gases. Petroleum Chemistry, 35(6), 480–488.Google Scholar
- Pourkerman, M., Amjadi, S., Beni, A. N., Lahijani, H., & Mehdinia, A. (2017). Evaluation of metal contamination in the Mand River delta, Persian Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 117(1–2), 499–506.Google Scholar
- Prasanna, M. V., Praveena, S. M., Chidambaram, S., Nagarajan, R., & Elayaraja, A. (2012). Evaluation of water quality pollution indices for heavy metal contamination monitoring: a case study from Curtin Lake, Miri City, East Malaysia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 67(7), 1987–2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Riley, J. P., & Chester, R. (1989). Introduction to marine chemistry (p 465). Great Britain: St. Edmundsbury Press.Google Scholar
- Roach, R. W., Carr, R. S., & Howard, C. L. (1993). An assessment of produced water impactsat two sites in Gaveslton Bay system, united states fish and wild life service. Houstan, Texas: Clear lake field office.Google Scholar
- Romero-Murillo, P., Espejo, W., Barra, R., & Orrego, R. (2017). Embryo–larvae and juvenile toxicity of Pb and Cd in Northern Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6373-9.
- Sadiq, M. (1992). Toxic metal chemistry in marine environments (p. 390). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
- Sadiq, M., & McCain, J C. (1993). The Gulf War aftermath: an environmental tragedy, Boston. Google Scholar
- Samahan, O., Ghobrial, F., Al-Muzaini, S., & Hamoda, M. F. (1990). Wasterwater sludge charactersitics in relation to potential dewatering Technologies - A case Study. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 2564, 367–379.Google Scholar
- Shenwen, C., N. Z., Li, Y., Ziwei, S., ZAhiting, X., Zhang, Y., & Yuntao, Z. (2012). Metals in the tissue of two fish species from rare and endemic fish nature reserve in the upper reaches of the Yangtze rive , China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88(6), 922–927.Google Scholar
- Sondervan, P. J. (2001). The relationship of calcium loss with trace element concentrations in seawater life systems. Bulletin de l’Institut Océanographique. Monaco, n° spécial 20, fascicule, 1.Google Scholar
- Stinger, J. B., De Haan, H. P. M., Guicherit, R., Dekkers, C. P. A., & Daane, M. L. (2000). Determination of cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium and arsenic in crude oil cargoes. Environmental Pollution, 107(3), 451–464.Google Scholar
- Vinagradov, V. (1973). Structure of dust storms from ITOS-I TV images obtained over Iraq and the Gulf of Persia. Moscow: Moscow Institute of Aerospace Method.Google Scholar
- Yesim, O. E. (2012). New assessment of heavy metal contamination in an eutrophicated bay (inner Izmir Bay, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 12(1), 121–141.Google Scholar