Study on the relationship between the concentration and type of fungal bio-aerosols at indoor and outdoor air in the Children’s Medical Center, Tehran, Iran

  • Sedighe Karimpour Roshan
  • Hatam GodiniEmail author
  • Bahram Nikmanesh
  • Heidar Bakhshi
  • Arezoo Charsizadeh


Fungal bio-aerosols are of concern due to their adverse health effects, especially in indoor environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the concentration and type of fungal bio-aerosols in the indoor and outdoor of Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, Iran. In the present descriptive-analytical study, the fungal bio-aerosols’ concentrations in both indoor and outdoor of the hospital air were measured. The measurements were carried out by the Anderson method using a Quick Take 30 pump at 28.3 L min−1 and 2.5 min sampling that was placed on a Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The average concentrations of total fungal bio-aerosols in the hospital indoor and outdoor air were 40.48 and 119.6 CFU/m3, respectively. Onco-hematology and bone marrow transplantation wards were the most and least contaminated units, respectively (11.09 CFU/m3 vs 1.47 CFU/m3). The most common fungi isolated from the indoor environment were Penicillium spp. (45.86%) which was followed by Cladosporium spp. (31.92%), Aspergillus section Nigri (6.26%), sterilized mycelia (5.05%), and Aspergillus section Flavi (2.83%). Cladosporium spp. (61.10 CFU/m3) and Penicillium spp. (18.56 CFU/m3) had the highest mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor air, respectively. The indoor-to-outdoor ratio of fungal aerosols was < 1 at most sampling sites, indicating that the indoor fungal bio-aerosols may have originated from the outdoor environment.


Bio-aerosol concentration Fungi Hospital indoor air Outdoor air I/O ratio 



This article is a part of a research project performed in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences. The authors of the article are sincerely thankful for the material and spiritual supports of the university vice chancellor for the implementation of the plan.

Author contributions

In this research, colleagues played the following role: Hatam Godini designed and completed the experiments. Data collection and analysis and writing of the article were carried out by Sedighe Karimpour Roshan and Hatam Godini. Isolation and identification of fungi bio-aerosol were conducted by Bahram Nikmanesh, Heidar Bakhshi, and Arezoo Charsizadeh.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Health, Safety and Environment (HSE)Alborz University of Medical SciencesKarajIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health, School of healthAlborz University of Medical SciencesKarajIran
  3. 3.Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Medical SciencesTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Immunology, Asthma & Allergy Research InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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